Vol3 Issue1

Vol3 Issue1 _4

posted Jul 16, 2019, 2:58 AM by Araz Ibrahim Mstafa   [ updated Jul 21, 2019, 5:09 AM by Yaseen Raouf Mohammed ]


 AbdulMushin M. Shami

 Department of Biotechnology, Institute of Genetics Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq

Morinda citrifolia fruit is important medicinal plants which have been used in traditional medicine. Well diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory concentration and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were used to evaluate antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus MRSA and Helicobacter pylori. Free radical scavenging activities DPPH and superoxide dismutase activity assays (SOD) were used to evaluate antioxidant activity. The purpose of the study was to determine antibacterial and antioxidant activities of protein extracted of the Morinda citrifolia fruit. Protein extracts from Morinda citrifolia fruit found to have antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin resistance MRSA with high antioxidant activities. It could be concluded that the protein extracted of this plant had a good antibacterial and antioxidant effects.

Morinda citrifolia; Proteins; Antibacterial properties; Antioxidant


[1] Andrews, J.M. (2001). Determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 48(suppl 1), 5-16.

[2] Atkinson, N. (1956). Antibacterial substances from flowering plants. 3. Antibacterial activity of dried Australian plants by a rapid direct plate test. The Australian journal of experimental biology and medical science, 34(1),         17.

[3] Barbosa Pelegrini, P., Del Sarto, R. P., Silva, O. N., Franco, O.L., & Grossi-de-Sa, M. F. (2011). Antibacterial peptides from plants: what they are and how they probably work. Biochemistry Research International, 2011.

[4] Boman, H.G. (2003). Antibacterial peptides: basic facts and emerging concepts. Journal of Internal Medicine, 254(3), 197-215.

[5] Bozin, B., Mimica-Dukic, N., Samojlik, I., Goran, A., & Igic, R. (2008). Phenolics as antioxidants in garlic ( Allium sativum L., Alliaceae). Food Chemistry, 111(4), 925-929.

[6] Caleya, R.F., Gonzalenz, B., Garcia, F., & Carbonero, P. . (1972). Susceptibility of phytopathogenic bacteria to wheat pourthionine in vitro. Applied Microbiology, 23, 998-1000.

[7] Chan-Blanco, Y., Vaillant, F., Mercedes Perez, A., Reynes, M., Brillouet, J.M., & Brat, P. (2006). The noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia L.): A review of agricultural research, nutritional and therapeutic properties. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 19(6), 645-654.

[8] De Gaudio, A.R., Rinaldi, S., & Adembri, C. (2012). Systemic antibiotics Infection Control in the Intensive Care Unit (pp. 67-97): Springer.

[9] Dittmar, A. (1993). Morinda citrifolia L.- Use in Indigenous Samoan Medicine. Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants, 1(3), 77-92.

[10] Hammami, R., Hamida, J. , & Hancock, W. . (2009). Peptide antimicrobial agents. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 19(3), 491–511.

[11] Hammami, R., Hamida, J.B., Vergoten, G., & Fliss, I. (2009). PhytAMP: a database dedicated to antimicrobial plant peptides. Nucleic acids research, 37(suppl 1), D963-D968.

[12] Kalt, W., Forney, C., Martin, A., & Prior, R. (1999). Antioxidant capacity, vitamin C, phenolics, and anthocyanins after fresh storage of small fruits. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 47(11), 4638-4644.

[13] Kovalskaya, N., Zhao, Y., & Hammond, R. (2011). Antibacterial and antifungal activity of a snakin-defensin hybrid protein expressed in tobacco and potato plants. Open Plant Science Journal, 5, 29-42.

[14] Locher, C. P., Burch, M. T., Mower, H. F., Berestecky, J., Davis, H., Van Poel, B., . . . Vlietinck, A. J. (1995). Anti-microbial activity and anti-complement activity of extracts obtained from selected Hawaiian medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 49(1), 23-32.

[15] Mandal, S.M., Dey, S., Mandal, M., Sarkar, S., Maria-Neto, S., & Franco, O. L. (2009). Identification and structural insights of three novel antimicrobial peptides isolated from green coconut water. Peptides, 30(4), 633-637.

[16] Mandal, S.M., Migliolo, L., Franco, O.L., & Ghosh, A.K. (2011). Identification of an antifungal peptide from< i> Trapa natans</i> fruits with inhibitory effects on< i> Candida tropicalis</i> biofilm formation. Peptides, 32(8), 1741-1747.

[17] Mkrtchyan, H., Gibbons, S., Heidelberger, S., Zloh, M., & Limaki, H. (2010). Purification, characterisation and identification of acidocin LCHV, an antimicrobial peptide produced by< i> Lactobacillus acidophilus</i> nv Er 317/402 strain Narine. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 35(3), 255-260.

[18] Morton, J.F. (1992). The ocean-going noni, or Indian Mulberry (Morinda citrifolia, Rubiaceae) and some of its “colorful” relatives. Economic Botany, 46(3), 241-256.

[19] Nelson, C. (2006). Morinda citrifolia (noni). Species profiles for Pacific Island forestry, 4, 1-13.

[20] Potterat, O., & Hamburger, M. (2007). Morinda citrifolia (Noni) fruit-phytochemistry, pharmacology, safety. Planta Medica-Natural Products and Medicinal Plant Research, 73(3), 191-199.

[21] Pownall, T., Udenigwe, C., & Aluko, R. (2010). Amino acid composition and antioxidant properties of pea seed (Pisum sativum L.) enzymatic protein hydrolysate fractions. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58(8), 4712-4718.

[22] Prior, R., & Wu, X. (2013). Diet Antioxidant Capacity: Relationships to Oxidative Stress and Health. Am. J. Biomed. Sci, 5(2), 126-139.

[23] Ross, I. A. (2001). Morinda citrifolia Medicinal Plants of the World (pp. 309-317): Springer.

[24] Sakudo, A., Lee, D., Li, S., Nakamura, T., Matsumoto, Y., Saeki, K., . . . Onodera, T. (2005). PrP cooperates with STI1 to regulate SOD activity in PrP-deficient neuronal cell line. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 328(1), 14-19.

[25] Saludes, J.P., Garson, M.J., Franzblau, S.G., & Aguinaldo, A.M. (2002). Antitubercular constituents from the hexane fraction of Morinda citrifolia Linn.(Rubiaceae). Phytotherapy Research, 16(7), 683-685.

[26] Singh, D.R. (2012). Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni): A review of the scientific validation for its nutritional and therapeutic properties. Journal of Diabetes and Endocrinology, 3(6), 77-91.

[27] Wang, M., & Su, C. (2001). Cancer preventive effect of Morinda citrifolia (Noni). Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 952, 161-168.

[28] Wang, M.Y., West, B.J., Jensen, C.J., Nowicki, D., Su, C., Palu, A.K., & Anderson, G. (2002). Morinda citrifolia (Noni): A literature review and recent advances in Noni research. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 23(12), 1127-1141.

[29] Wang, Z., & Wang, G. (2004). APD: the antimicrobial peptide database. Nucleic acids research, 32(suppl 1), D590-D592.

[30] Wong, J., Ng, T.B., Fang, E. F., & Wang, H.K. (2013). Defense Proteins with Antiproliferative and Antimicrobial Activities from Fungi and Bacteria Antitumor Potential and other Emerging Medicinal Properties of Natural Compounds (pp. 359-373): Springer.

[31] Zin, Z ., Abdul-Hamid, A., & Osman, A. (2002). Antioxidative activity of extracts from Mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia L.) root, fruit and leaf. Food Chemistry, 78(2), 227-231. 

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Vol3 Issue1 _3

posted Jun 10, 2019, 5:23 AM by Yaseen Raouf Mohammed   [ updated Jun 10, 2019, 5:52 AM ]


 Srwa Ali Mohammed

 Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Science and Health/ Koya University/ Koya KOY45 , Kurdistan Region – Iraq

 Rebin A. Omar

 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Health, Koya University Koya KOY45, Kurdistan Region – Iraq

 Rabar S. Muhammed

 Assistant Biology at Rizgary Hospital’s Laboratory Erbil/Iraq

 Tavga A. Mahmood

 Assistant Biology at Sulaimaniyah Teaching Hospital’s Laboratory/ Sulaimanyah/Iraq

Twenty three isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from 100 different samples of (urine, nose, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), blood, and wound) between January/ 2017 and May/ 2017. Fifty samples for each of Sulaimania and Erbil were identified according to the culture characteristic, morphological and biochemical examinations.The antibiotic susceptibility tests for all isolates were conducted to two antimicrobials agents including [penicillin (p) and vancomycin (VA)] and using the disk diffusion method. The results showed 20 (86.9%) of the S. aureus strains were resistant to penicillin and 3 (13.04%) were vancomycin resistant among MRSA. Two of these isolates that were resistant to vancomycin were obtained from Sulaimania and one of them was obtained from Erbil. The confirmation by PCR was done and a 290bp amplicon product was obtained for VRSA isolates. Only 2 out of 3 of the isolates were corresponding to VRSA, one for each city.

 MRSA 1, PCR amplification 2, Staphylococcus aureus 3, vanA gene 4, VRSA 5

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of Musculoskeletal research; Vol. 4:39-60.
[2] Jawetz, Melnick, & Adelberg’s. [2013], Medical Microbiology Twenty-Sixth Edition McGraw-Hill eBooksbulksales@mcgraw-hill.co
[3] Chambers HF1, and Deleo FR. [2009], Waves of resistance: Staphylococcus aureus in theAntibiotic era; HHS Public Access Author Manuscript; 7 (9):629- 641. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro2200
[4] Ena, j., Dick, RW. Jones, R N., and Wenzel, RP. [1993], The Epidemiology of Intravenous Vancomycin Usage in a University Hospital, Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA);
[5] Courvalin P. Vancomycin resistance in gram-positive cocci Clin Infect Dis official Publ Infect Dis Soc Am, 42 (2006), pp. S25-S34
[6] Hiramatsu, K., Katayama, Y., Matsuo, M., Sasaki, T., Morimoto, Y., Sekiguchi, A., and Baba, T. [2014]. Multi-drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and future chemotherapy, Journal of
Infection and Chemotherapy; Volume 20, Issue 10, 593-601 doi.org/10.1016/j.jiac.2014.08.001
[7] Josephine A. Morello, Paul A. Granato, Helen Eckel Mizer. [2003], Laboratory Manual and Workbook in Microbiology; 7th edition. © The Mc- Graw−Hill Companies ISBN: 0-07-246354-6
[8] Bauer, A. W., Kirby W. M. M., Sherris J. C., Turk, M. [1996], Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing by a Standardized Single Disk Method, the American Journal of Clinical Pathology, Vol. 45; P. 493-496.
[9] Biswajit, S., Anil, K. S., Abhrajyoti, G., Manjusri B. [2008], Identification and characterization of a Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from Kolkata (South Asia), J Med
Microbiol; 57:72– 9
[10] Srwa Ali Muhammed [2014], Biofilm Determination of Listeria Monocytogenes That Isolated from Different Sources; Journal of Life Science, Journal of Life Sciences 8 (2014) 805-810 doi:10.17265/1934-7391/2014.10.002 ISSN:1934-7391, USA 20
[11] Dubey, R. C., and Maheshwari, D.K. [2009], Book name “Microbiology”. 1st edition; S. P.1034 Koneman’s M.D., Color Atlas and Textbook of “Diagnostic Microbiology”
[12] Koneman, E. W., Allen, S. D., Janda, W. M., Schereckenberger, P.C., Win JR W. C. [2001], Microbiological Diagnosis”, 5thEdition: Guanabara Koogan: chap. 11: Gram-positive Coccus: part I: Staphylococci and Related Microorganisms
[13] Brooks, G. F., Caroll, K.F., and Morse, S. A. [2000], Staphylococcus (Jawetz).Melnick and Adelberg’s, Medical Microbiology, 24th edition
[14] MacFaddin, J. F. [2000], Biochemical tests for identification of medical bacteria”. 3rd ed. Lipicott Williams and Wilkins USA
[15] Emanuel G. and Lorrence H. Green, 2008, Practical Handbook of Microbiology, second Edition Practical Handbook of MICROBIOLOGY, Second Edition
[16] Wasif G., Musarrat S., Maham Y., Farheen A., Masood R., 2016 Isolation and Identification of Methicillin and Vancomycin Resistance Staphylococcus aureus From Pus Samples of Injured Skin patients in Lahore, Pakistan, Biomedical Letters, Volum 2/ issue 2/ page 103-112
[17] Hiramatsu, K., Hanaki, H., Ino, T., Yabuta, K., Oguri, T., Tenover, F. C. [1997], Methicillin- Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clinical Strain with Reduced Vancomycin Susceptibility, J Antimicrob Chemother; 40: 135–36.
[18] De Lassence, A., Hidri, N., Timsit, J. F., Joly- Guillou, M. L., Thiery, G., Boyer, A. et al. [2006], Control And Outcome of a Large Outbreak of Colonization and Infection with Glycopeptide-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus in an Intensive Care Unit, Clin Infect Dis.42:170–8
[19] Hasan R, Acharjee M, and Noor R. [2016], Prevalence of Vancomycin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) in Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) Strains Isolated From Burn Wound Infections. TZU CHI MEDICAL JOURNAL; 28(2): 49–53. PMCID: PMC5442891 doi: 10.1016/j.tcmj.2016.03.002
[20] Venubabu T, Channappa T S, and Subhaschandra MG. [2011], Vancomycin Resistance Among Methicillinm Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Intensive Care Units of Tertiary
Care Hospitals in Hyderabad. (IJMR) Indian Journal of Medical Research ; 134(5): 704–708doi: 10.4103/0971-5916.91001.

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Vol3 Issue1 _2

posted Jan 17, 2019, 5:35 AM by Yaseen Raouf Mohammed   [ updated Mar 25, 2019, 12:44 AM ]


 Snowber M. Ahmed

 General Science Department College of Basic Education, Salahaddin University -Erbil, kurdistan Region, Iraq

A laboratory experiment was carried out in College of Science Education University of Salahaddin –Erbil/Iraq to study the effect of times and methods of extraction on nitrogen and protein percentage in different monocot and dicot seeds. The investigation involved two extraction methods, first was the 5:1sulphoric acid and (potassium sulphate +copper sulphate mixture),while the second method was the 1:1 sulphuric acid and hydrogen peroxide extraction method at three durations of time 30mins, 60mins and 90mins, for each method under programmed temperature. However Lowry methods were used for determination of protein. The results indicated that nitrogen content in monocot grains ranged from 1.22 to 1.68% and from 1.32 to 1.96 % in monocot plant for both methods of extraction respectively , while in dicot plant seeds ranged from 1.84 % and 2.43 to 3.15 % and 3.16% respectively. According to the value of coefficient variation the sulphuric acid and hydrogen peroxide method appear to be more accurate in dicot plants, but in monocot plant the sulphuric acid and CuSO4+K2SO4 mixture method was more homogenous in nitrogen determination. . The correlation coefficient show a significant relationship between
the sulphuric acid and hydrogen peroxide method and Lowry method for determination of protein in plants seeds with correlation coefficient determination r2 =0.936**

Extraction , Nitrogen, Protein, plants and Kjeldahl method.
[1] Shakir, I. M. A. and Adil-K, Kadhir (1989). Determination of total nitrogen from Kjeldahl acid extract using selenium or titanium ( IV ) oxide ( anatase ) with copper II sulphate in tobacco leaves by molecular emission cavity analysis MECA. J. univ. Kuwait sci 16. 261-266.15
[2] Smart, M. M;, R. G. Rada and G. N. Donnermeyer 1983 . Determination of total nitrogen in sediments and plant using persulphate extraction. Evaluation and comparison with Kjeldabl procedure. Water Research 17: 1207-1211.
[3] Dubetz. S. ( 1977 ). Effect of high rates of nitrogen on neepawa wheat grown under irrigation 1- yield and protein content. Can. J. Plant Sci 571 331-336.
[4] Dawood, R. A and Bakheit .B. R. ( 1988 ). Effect of N application at various growth stages on quantity and quality of barley. Assiut Jor. of agri. Sci 19 (5) 181-192.
[5] Baker, R. H and Kadhem M. A. ( 1989 ). Effect of nitrogen on dry matter, chemical composition, and yield of barley and Oats. Iraq. Jor of Agri. Sci 18 (2) : 89-92
[6] Al-zako,J.M.H.(1990) .Effect of VAM on growth of corn and soya bean .M. Sc. Thesis, College of Science University of Salahaddin-Erbil. Iraq .(in arabic).
[7] Darwesh, D. A. (1999). Effect nitrogen source and supplementary irrigation on ammonia volatilization yield and protein content of wheat in different textured soil. Zanco.J.of Salahaddin.Univ .11(2)1999.21-29.
[8] Mustafa,K.K (2003).Effect of different level of nitrogen fertilizer on effectiveness of bacteria Rhizobium leguminosarum strain in Ficia faba plant. Zanco.J.of Salahaddin.Univ.15(2):7-12 .(in arabic).
[9] Sahid ,S.Abd (2010) C0mbination effect of mycorrhizal inoculation and phosphorus fertilizer on yield components and nutrients balance of two wheat species by using modified .M.Sc thesis college of education, Salahaddin Erbil university
[10] Qadir,S.A..2017 Evaluation of the physiological properties and genetic diversity of bread wheat Triticum aestivum L. under drought condition A dissertation college of education. Salahaddin university .
[11] Shakir, I.M.A ; Hussein, F. H. and Jamal, M. A. ( 1988 ). Determination of total nitrogen in fertilizer by molecular emission cavity analysis MECA Iraq. Jor. of Agri Sci (6) 57-67.
[12] Pruden, G., powlsen, D. S. and, D. S. Jenkinson.(1985). Measurement of nitrogen in soil and plant materials. Fertilizer research 6: 205-18
[13] Allen, S. E. Grim H. M and parkson J. A.( 1974 ). Chemical analysis of ecological materials .Blackwell scientific publication London PP:186-187.
[14] Stump, J. M ;, C. B. Christianson and, R. J. Bursh (1985). Aluminum block extraction procedure for determination of total nitrogen in soil containing nitrogen Soil Sci and plant analysis PP:16 1-164 .
[15] Lowry.O.H; N.J.Rosebrough; A.L.Farr and R.J.Randall.(1951),Proteinmeasurement with folin phenol reagent.Journal of .Biol.Chem.193:265-275
[16] Vos,j.(1997).The nitrogen response of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in the field: nitrogen uptake and yield, harvest index and nitrogen concentration. Potato Research 40:237-248.
[17]Anglov,T; I. M. Petersen and J. Kristiansen(1999). Uncertainty of nitrogen determination by the Kjeldahl method. Accred Qual Assur . 4: 504–510.
[18]Gajewska .E; M. Wielanek ; K. Bergier and M. Skłodowska.(2009).Nickel-induced depression of nitrogen assimilation in wheat roots. Acta .Physiol. Plant . 31:1291–1300.
[19]Steele,R.G and J,H.Torrie.(1969).Principle and procedure of statistic .McGraw Hill Book Co.Inc.New York.pp:1-530
[20] Barker, A.V and D. J.Pilbeam (2007) handbook of plant nutrition .Taylor and Francis Group Bocan Rotan .London .PP:28-29.

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Vol3 Issue1 _1

posted Oct 23, 2018, 1:42 AM by Yaseen Raouf Mohammed   [ updated Mar 25, 2019, 12:40 AM ]

 Dana Khdr Sabir

 Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Charmo University, 46023 Chamchamal, Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

Acinetobacter baummannii is aerobic, Gram negative and multidrug resistant bacterium (MDR) which is the main cause of the hospital acquired infection.Using nanoparticle as antimicrobial agents is a promising method to overcome the threat of MDR bacteria, this is not only because the natural effective properties of these particles against the bacterial cells, but it is also unlikely that microorganisms gain resistant against nanoparticles. In this study, silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) and synergistic effect of Ag-NPs with different antibiotics were tested against A. baummannii strain H72721 in Tryptic Soy Broth (TSB). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each of the ampicillin, kanamycin, gentamycin and clindamycin on the bacterium was 11 mg/ml, 2 mg/ml, 0.5 mg/ ml, and 0.3 mg/ml respectively. In addition, MIC of the Ag-NPs alone towards the bacterial strain was found as (0.75 mg ml- 1). Interestingly, the inhibitory property of each of the tested antibiotics were greatly improved when they were used in combination with Ag-NPs compare to when they were used alone, and in case of each of the ampicillin and clindamycin the bacterial growth reduced 3 folds. Results from this study are strongly suggesting that Ag-NPs could be provide a successful approach to overcome the problem of MDR bacteria and could use as a superficial treatment for A. baummannii’s infections.

multidrug resistance, minimuminhibitory concentration, silver nanoparticles

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[3] Davis, K.A., et al., Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter Extremity Infections in Soldiers. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2005. 11(8): p. 1218-1224.
[4] Howard, A., et al., Acinetobacter baumannii: an emerging opportunistic pathogen. Virulence, 2012. 3(3): p. 243-50.
[5] Turton, J.F., et al., Comparison of Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates from the United Kingdom and the United States That Were Associated with Repatriated Casualties of the Iraq Conflict. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2006. 44(7): p. 2630-2634.
[6] Rice, L.B., Challenges in identifying new antimicrobial agents effective for treating infections with Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Clin Infect Dis, 2006. 43 Suppl 2: p. S100-5.
[7] Alsan, M. and M. Klompas, Acinetobacter baumannii: An Emerging and Important Pathogen. Journal of clinical outcomes management : JCOM, 2010. 17(8): p. 363-369.
[8] Urban, C., S. Segal-Maurer, and J.J. Rahal, Considerations in Control and Treatment of Nosocomial Infections Due to Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 2003. 36(10): p. 1268-1274.
[9] Harding, C.M., S.W. Hennon, and M.F. Feldman, Uncovering the mechanisms of Acinetobacter baumannii virulence. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 2018. 16(2): p. 91.
[10] WHO, Global priority list of antibiotic-resistant bacteria to guide research, discovery, and development of new antibiotics. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2017.
[11] Pal, S., Y.K. Tak, and J.M. Song, Does the Antibacterial Activity of Silver Nanoparticles Depend on the Shape of the Nanoparticle? A Study of the Gram-Negative Bacterium Escherichia coli. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 2007.
73(6): p. 1712-1720.
[12] Stoimenov, P.K., et al., Metal Oxide Nanoparticles as Bactericidal Agents. Langmuir, 2002. 18(17): p. 6679-6686.
[13] Li, P., et al., Synergistic antibacterial effects of β-lactam antibiotic combined with silver nanoparticles. Nanotechnology, 2005. 16(9): p. 1912- 1917.
[14] Chudobova, D., et al., Effect of Ampicillin, Streptomycin, Penicillin and Tetracycline on Metal Resistant and Non-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2014. 11(3): p. 3233-3255.
[15] Kohanski, M.A., D.J. Dwyer, and J.J. Collins, How antibiotics kill bacteria: from targets to networks. Nature reviews. Microbiology, 2010. 8(6): p. 423-435.
[16] Abdel Rahim, K.A. and A.M. Ali Mohamed, Bactericidal and Antibiotic Synergistic Effect of Nanosilver Against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Jundishapur J Microbiol, 2015. 8(11): p. e25867.
[17] Kim, S.-H., et al., Antibacterial activity of silver-
nanoparticles against Staphylococcus aureus
and Escherichia coli. Korean J. Microbiol. Biotechnol,
2011. 39(1): p. 77-85. http://dx.doi.org/10.31530/17028
[18] Gao, M., et al., Controlled synthesis of Ag nanoparticles with different morphologies and their antibacterial properties. Materials Science and Engineering: C, 2013. 33(1): p. 397-404.
[19] McShan, D., et al., Synergistic antibacterial effect of silver nanoparticles combined with ineffective antibiotics on drug resistant Salmonella typhimurium DT104. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part C, 2015. 33(3): p. 369-384.

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