Research Papers

Vol2 Paper 25

posted Oct 7, 2018, 3:52 AM by Araz Ibrahim Mstafa


Ala Berzinji

Department of Social and System Science, Stockholm University

Razee H. Jamal

Department of Computer Science, College of Science, University of Sulaimani
The e-government system is very essential for delivering efficient governmental services to citizens quicker. Kurdistan Region of Iraq has four million populationsresiding in three governorates. Kurdistan Region is governed through a semi-autonomous government for 23 years, it has all the essential organizations but it lacks a modern electronic system to deliver best possible services to the citizens. The Government services in Kurdistan region are ran through a traditional paper based system which created big challenges such as corruption, lack of technocrat employees, information leaks, bureaucracy and masked unemployment. Despite fewlimited applications of computerizing organizations in Kurdistan region but the region is not developed in the area of e-services and digitalizing the public sectors. The aim of this research is to expose the citizen’s opinion on replacing the old traditional based system with new e-Government Services. A survey carried out within a large group of peoplevisited a pilot institution and explored the new system, and then they were asked to answer a questionnaire. This study suggesting that it’s very important to diffuse e-government services in Kurdistan region. The e-government application in the region will reduce bureaucracy,the number of employees, eliminate corruption and information leak. The result shows that majority of people in Kurdistan region accepts e-government application and believes that it will have significant impact on improving the quality of the government services. Thisstudy confirms that local people think that e-government will solve the challenges in the region.

Keywords: e-government, e-services, transparency, paperless system

[1] Lindgren, I, &Jansson, G 2013, ‘Electronic services in the public sector: A conceptual framework’, Government Information Quarterly, 30, 2, pp. 163-172, Business Source Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 16 January 2015.
[2] Sadykov, T, &Taizhanov, A 2014, ‘Solution of problems of development of the electronic government in the Republic of Kazakhstan’, Asian Social Science, 10, 24, p. 134-143, Scopus®, EBSCOhost, viewed 16 January 2015.
[3] Al-Mobaideen, H, Al-Bashabsheh, S, Basioni, E, & al-khawaldeh, A 2013, ‘ELECTRONIC GOVERNMENT SERVICES AND BENEFITS IN JORDAN’, International Journal Of Academic Research, 5, 6, pp. 206-215, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 16 January 2015.
[4] Vrček, N, &Klačmer, M 2014, ‘Intention to use and variables influencing intention to use electronic government services among citizens’, Journal Of Information And Organizational Sciences, 38, 1, p. 55-69, Scopus®, EBSCOhost, viewed 16 January 2015.
[5] Villoria, M, &RamírezAlujas, Á 2013, ‘Development Stages of Electronic Government Models An Analysis from Political Theory’, Gestión Y PolíticaPública, 22, pp. 69-103, FuenteAcadémica Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 16 January 2015
[6] Hui, Z, Xiaolin, X, &Jianying, X 2014, ‘Diffusion of e-government: A literature review and directions for future directions’, Government Information Quarterly, 31, 4, pp. 631-636, Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts, EBSCOhost, viewed 16 January 2015.
[7] Bertot, J, Gorham, U, Jaeger, P, Sarin, L, & Choi, H 2014, ‘Big data, open government and e-government: Issues, policies and recommendations’, Information Polity: The International Journal Of Government & Democracy In The Information Age, 19, 1/2, pp. 5-16, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 16 January 2015.
[8] Wenhua X; Jian Y, May 2010 “E-government and the Change of Government Management Mode,” E-Business and E-Government (ICEE), 2010 International Conference on , vol., no., pp.675,678, 7-9  doi: 10.1109/ICEE.2010.176
[9] Al-khafaji, N.J.; Shittuline, A.J.K.; Osman, W.R.B.S. 2012, “The effect of resistance to change in the application of e-Government in Iraq,” ICT and Knowledge Engineering (ICT & Knowledge Engineering), 2012 10th International Conference on ,vol., no., pp.99,103, 21-23 Nov. doi: 10.1109/ICTKE.2012.6408579
[10] Janssen, M, Lamersdrof, W, Pries-Heje, J. &rosemann, M. 2010 “ Egovernment, E services and Global Processes [ Elektroniskresurs] : Joint IFP TC 8 and TC 6 Internationak Conferences, EGES 201o and GISP 2010, Held as part of WCC 2010, Brisbane, Australia, September 20-23, 2010. Proceeding, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin, Heidelberg 2010.
[11]The 10 Most Corrupt Countries In The World. 2011-2014, by Robert, J and Andrew,S , Last Visited on: 09 Dec 2014.
[12]The Kurdistan Region in Brief.2014, by, Last visited on: 09 Dec 2014.
[13]Johannesson P, Perjons E. 2012. A Design Science Primer. North Charleston, SC, USA: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform; 
[14]Denscombe, M. 2010 The good research guide: for small scale research projects.  4th ed.  Maidenhead:  McGraw-Hill Open University Press.
[15]Justus J. Randolph 2008, Multidisciplinary Methods in Educational Technology Research and Development, HAMK University of Applied Sciences.

Vol2 Paper 24

posted Aug 27, 2018, 2:01 AM by Yaseen Raouf Mohammed   [ updated Sep 4, 2018, 2:23 AM ]


 Maher A. Nawkhass

 Department of Business Administration, College of Administrative and Financial Science, Cihan University, Hawler, Iraq.

The research aims to find average revenue diagnostics of Taq Taq Block Factory by using Linear Programming Problems (LPP), the research depends on formulating technique to change the problem to mathematical formula then solve to the formula by simplex method and by find the average of two objective functions by new formula. This is achieved to find optimal profit of the company through out two different times, before and after Economic Crisis (Appendix I). Then a comparison of the two different times and its average revenue will show in table (III). The conclusion will be focus on the differential profit and average revenue, before and after crisis.

MOLPP; SOLPP; Simplex Method; Optimization.

[1] Balogun, O. S., Jolayemi, E. T., Akingbade, T. J., Muazu, H. G.[2012], ”Use Of Linear Programming For Optimal Production In A Production Line In Coca –Cola Bottling Company”. Ilorin IJERA. vol.2, p.5.
[2] Mlshra, S., [2012]” Operation Research”. Available at 100903589/Operation Research, (21). Accessed on May 17, 2017.
[3] Sharma, S., [1988],”Operation Research”, Kedar Nath Ram Nath BCO. Meerut, India. p. 60, 559.
[4] Yahya, W., M. Garba, A. Adeyosoye, S. Ige. [2012]”Profit Maximization In A Product Mix Company Using Linear Programming”. European Journal of Business and Management, vol. 4 p.17.

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Vol2 Paper 23

posted Aug 27, 2018, 12:59 AM by Yaseen Raouf Mohammed   [ updated Sep 4, 2018, 2:18 AM ]


 Karwan H.F, Jwamer

 Department of Mathematics, College of Science, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

 Hawsar Ali

 Department of Mathematics, College of Education, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

In this paper, we study the asymptotic behaviors of the solutions and eigenvalues of the differential equations of fourth order with boundary conditions are proposed and analyzed.

Asymptotic Behaviors, eigenvalues, solutions, spectral problem, boundary conditions.

[1] Gadzhieva, T. Yu., “Analysis of spectral characteristics of one non-self adjoinproblem with smooth coefficients”, PhD thesis, Dagestan State University, South of Russian, [2010]. 261
[2] Karwan H.F. Jwamer and Aryan A.M, “Study the Behavior of the Solution and Asymptotic Behaviors of Eigenvalues of a Six Order Boundary Value Problem”,International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences, Vol.13, Issue 3, December 2012,p.790-799, Pakistan.
[3] Karwan H.F. Jwamer and Aryan A.M, “Boundedness of Normalized Eigenfunctions of the Spectral Problem in the Case of Weight Function Satisfying the Lipschitz Condition”, Journal of ZankoySulaimani – Part A [JZS-A], Vol. 15, No.1, 2013,p.79-94.
[4] Karwan .H.F.Jwamer ,Aigounv G.A and GajivaT.Yu, “The study of the asymptotic behavior of the eigenvalues and the estimate for the kernel of the resolvent of an irregular boundary value problem generated by a differential equation of order four on the interval [0, a]”, Bulletin of Dagestan State University, Natural Sciences , Makhachkala[South of Russian], Vol.4,No.4 ,2007,p. 93-97.
[5] Karwan H.F.Jwamer, Hawsar Ali HR, “Asymptotic Behaviors of the Eigenvalues and Solution of a Fourth Order Boundary Value Problem”, International Journal of Partial Differential Equations and Applications, Vol.3, No.2, 2015, p.25-28.
[6] Naimark .M.A, “Linear Differential Operators”, New York, USA, 1968.
[7] Shkalikov A.A, “Boundary value problem with a spectral parameter in the boundary Conditions”, Zeitchrift fur AngewandteMathematikund Mechanik, Vol.76, pp.133- 135, 1996.
[8] Tamarkin.Ya.D, “About some general problems of theory of ordinary linear Differential equations and about decomposition of arbitrary functions in series”, Petrograd 1917.

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Vol2 Paper 22

posted Aug 27, 2018, 12:25 AM by Yaseen Raouf Mohammed   [ updated Sep 4, 2018, 2:16 AM ]


 Aryan Ali Mohammed

 Department of Mathematics, College of Science, University of Sulaimani, Sulaimanyah,Iraq.

In this paper, we solve a type of the spectral linear ordinary differential equation of second order with two different types of coefficients. First type of coefficients are some real polynomials of the independent variable, while the second type of the coefficients are real valued continuous functions of the independent variable, and each of these two types are reduced to the constant coefficients by changing the independent variable to new variable. Examples have been included to show the usefulness and effectiveness of our technique.

Change of variable; real polynomials; spectral parameter; general solution; variationof parameters.

[1] Arficho, D. [2015], Method for Solving Particular Solution of Linear Second Order Ordinary Differential Equations, J Appl Computat Math 4(2), 1-3.
[2] Bellman, R. [1953], Stability Theory of Differential Equations, McGraw-Hill, New York.
[3] Cesari, L. [1963], Asymptotic Behavior and Stability Problems in Ordinary DifferentialEquations, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
[4] Coppel, W. A. [1965], Stability and Asymptotic Behavior of Differential Equations, Heat, Boston, Mass.
[5] Coppel, W. A. [1971], Disconjugacy, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
[6] Gadzhieva, T. Yu. [2010], Analysis of spectral characteristics of one nonself adjoint problem with smooth coefficients, PhD thesis, Dagestan State University, South of Russian.
[7] Hartman, P. and Wintner, A. [1949], On the Laplace-Fourier transcendent, Amer. J. Math 71, 367-372.
[8] Hartman, P. [1964], Ordinary Differential Equations, Wiley, New York.
[9] Hochtadt, H. [1964], on the stability of certain second-order differential equations, Sot. Ind.Appl. Math 12, 58-59.
[10] Johnson, P., Busawon, K. and Barbot, J. [2008], Alternative solution of the inhomo-geneous linear differential equation of order two, J. Math. Anal. Appl 339, 582–589.
[11] Jwamer, K. H. and Mohammed, A. A. [2013], Boundedness of Normalized Eigenfunctions of the Spectral Problem in the Case of Weight Function Satisfying the Lipschitz Condition,
Journal of Zankoy Sulaimani – Part A 15(1), 79-94.
[12] Jwamer, K. H. and Mohammed, A. A. [2012], Study the Behavior of the Solution and Asymptotic Behaviors of Eigenvalues of a Six Order Boundary Value Problem, International
Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences 13(3), 790-799.
[13] Marini, M. [1975], Criteri di limitatezza per le soluzioni dell’equazione lineare de1 second ordine, Boll. U.M.I 4, 154-165.
[14] Marini, M. and Zezza, P. [1978], On the Asymptotic Behavior of the Solutions of a Classof Second-Order Linear Differential Equations, Journal of Differential Equations 28,1-17.
[15] Mohammed, A. A. [2016], Eigenfunctions and asymptotic behavior of Eigenvalues to the given boundary value problem with Eigenparameter in the boundary conditions, Journal of Zankoy Sulaimani – Part A 18(1), 179-190.
[16] Moore, R. A. [1955], The behavior of solutions of a linear differential equation of secondorder, Pacific J. Math 5, 125-145. 247
[17] Nemytskii, V. V and Stepanov, V. V. [1960], Qualitative Theory of Differential Equations, Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, New Jersey.
[18] Richard, U. [1964], Serie asintotiche per una classe di equazioni differenziali non oscillanti de1 second ordine, Uniw. Polit. Torino, Rend. Sent. Mat 23, 171-217.
[19] Sansone, G. [1941], Equazioni Differenziali Nel Campo Reale II, Zanichelli, Bologna.
[20] Swanson, C. A. [1968], Comparison and Oscillatory Theory of Linear Differential Equations, Academic Press, New York.

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Vol2 Paper 21

posted Aug 27, 2018, 12:11 AM by Yaseen Raouf Mohammed   [ updated Sep 4, 2018, 2:14 AM ]


 Adil Kadir Jabbar

 Department of Mathematics, College of Science, University of Sulaimani, Sulaimani-Iraq.

 Farhad Rafiq Krush

 Directorate of Education of Sulaimani- District West.

In this paper some conditions are obtained under which certain elements and certain ideals of a ring R become central elements and central ideals and some other conditions are determined which make a given additive mapping of a centrally semiprime ring as a derivation. Also, certain types of additive mapping have been studied such as, reverse derivations, Jordan derivations and α − derivations and some properties of each one are proved and the relations between them are established.

Semiprime rings, centrally semiprime rings, n − torsion free ring and free actions,derivations, reverse derivations, α − derivations and Jordan centralizers.

[1] M. A. Chaudhry and A. B. Thaheem: A Note on a pair of derivations of semiprime rings, IJMMS, Vol. 39, [2004], PP 2097-2102.
[2] M. N. Daif: On generalized derivations of semiprime rings with involution, International Journal of Algebra, Vol. 1, No. 12, [2007], pp. 551-555.
[3] M. N. Daif and H. E. Bell: Remarks on derivations on semiprime rings, Internat. J. Math. & Math. Sci. ,Vol. 15, No. 1, [1992], pp. 205-206.
[4] M. Fosner and J. Vukman: On some equations in prime rings. Montash. Math. 152, [2007], pp. 135-150.
[5] A. K. Jabbar and A. H. Majeed: On Centrally Semiprime Rings and Centrally Semiprime Near-rings with Derivations, Journal of Kirkuk University, Scientific Studies vol. 3, No.1, [2008], pp.158-168.
[6] A. K. Jabbar: On Centrally Prime Rings and Centrally Prime Near-Rings with Derivations, Ph. D. Thesis, University of Sulaimani, [2007].
[7] Y. S. Jung and K. H. Park: On Generalized (α ,β ) − Derivations and commutativity in Prime Rings, Bull. Korean Math. Soc., Vol. 43, [2006], pp. 101-106.
[8] B. D. Kim: Derivations of semiprime ring and noncommutative Banach algebra, Commun. Korea Math. Soc.17, No. 4, [2002], pp. 607-618.
[9] M. D. Larsen and P. J. McCarthy: Multiplicative Theory of Ideals, Academic Press New York and London [1971].
[10] E. H. Lee, Y. S. Jung and I. S. Chang: Derivations on prime and semi-prime rings, Bull. Korean. Soc.39, No. 3, [2002], pp. 485- 494 .
[11] A. N. Mustafa: On Jordan n-ripple higher derivations and centralized derivations on semiprime rings, M. Sc. Thesis, University of Sulaimani [2007].
[12] M. S. Samman and M. A. Chaudhry: Dependent elements of left centralizer of semiprime rings, The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, vol. 33, No. 2A, [2008], p p 313-319 .
[13] M. Samman and N. Alyamani: Derivations and Reverse Derivations in Semiprime Rings, International Math. Fourm, No. 39, [2007], pp.1895-1902.
[14] J. Vukman and I. K. Ulbl: On centralizers of semiprime rings with involution, Studia Scientiarum Mathematicarum Hungarica, 43[1], [2006], pp. 61-67.
[15] J. Vukman and I. K. Ulbl: on dependent elements in rings, UMMS, No. 54, [2004], pp. 2895-2906.
[16] J. Vukman: Jordan left derivations on semiprime rings, Math. J. Okayama Univ. 39, [1997], pp. 1-6 .
[17] M. S. Yenigul and N. Argac: on prime and semiprime rings with α − derivations, Tr. J. of Math. ,18, [1994], pp. 280-284. 236
[18] B. Zalar: On Centralizers of Semiprime Rings, Comment. Math. Univ. Caroline 32,4, [1991], pp. 609-614.

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Vol2 Paper 20

posted Aug 26, 2018, 11:55 PM by Yaseen Raouf Mohammed   [ updated Sep 4, 2018, 2:13 AM ]


 Chrakhan R. Rashid

 General Science Department, College of Education and Natural Sciences, Charmo University, Chamchamal/Sulaimani- Kurdistan Region-Iraq.

 Jamila J. Tahir

 General Science Department, College of Education and Natural Sciences, Charmo University, Chamchamal/Sulaimani- Kurdistan Region-Iraq.

 Omed M. Mustafa

 General Science Department, College of Education and Natural Sciences, Charmo University, Chamchamal/Sulaimani- Kurdistan Region-Iraq.

Waste is any undesired materials around. Municipal solid waste is a category of waste that has an enormous volume. Therefore, some techniques are needed to deal with this huge amount. There are particular methods to manage the unwanted wastes. Dumping (open dump), landfill, incineration, recycling, and compaction are the most well-known ones worldwide. In case of mismanagement of solid waste, many risks can be possible. Environmentally, water, air and soils are likely to be deteriorated. Then, human and animal health could also be harmed by the trash, despite of spreading and increasing the number of some animals such as birds, rats and insects in the area. Finally, visual pollutions are of the major risks in the region.Dwbra Valley open dump in Chamchamal town represents the case study was taken to show the city garbage concerns and how to manage it. Here, the compaction and open dumping methods are used to manage the waste of Chamchamal town. The open dump has many risks to the environment, health, and despite the fact that visually, affected the region. A recyclingtechnique is very close to be established for the dump to minimize its risk. This study outlines this waste dump as a point source of pollution and emphasizes the solution for the endangered area and its surround area.

Solid waste management, Chamchamal, Dwbra Valley, Pollution, open dump, point source.

[1] Ejaz, N., Aktar, N., Nisar, H. & Ali Naeem, U., 2010. Environmental impacts of improper solid waste management in developing countries: a case study of Rawalpinidi City. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, Vol 142, pp.379 – 387.
[2] Sankoh, F.P., Yan, X. and Tran, Q., 2013. Environmental and health impact of solid waste disposal in developing cities: a case study of granville brook dumpsite, Freetown, Sierra Leone. Journal of Environmental Protection, 2013.
[3] Khajuria, A., Yamamoto, Y. & Morioka, T., 2010. Estimation of municipal solid waste generation and landfill area in Asian developing countries. , 31[September], pp.649–654.
[4] Triassi, M., Alfano, R., Illario, M., Nardone, A., Caporale, O. and Montuori, P., 2015. Environmental pollution from illegal waste disposal and health effects: A review on the “Triangle
of Death”. International journal of environmental research and public health, 12[2], pp.1216-1236.
[5] Pervez, A., & Kafeel, A., 2013, Impact of solid waste on health and the environment. International Journal of Sustainable Development and Green Economics [IJSDGE], ISSN No.: 2315-4721, V-2, I-1, 2, pp 165-168.
[6] Isa, M. H. [2005]. Solid waste collection and recycling in Nibong Tebal, Penang, Malaysia: a case study. Waste Management & Research, 23[6], 565–570. doi:10.1177/0734242X05059803
[7] Bari, Q. H., Hassan, K. M., & Haque, R. [2012]. Scenario of solid waste reuse in Khulna city of Bangladesh. Waste Management, 32[12], 2526–2534. doi:10.1016/j.wasman. 2012.07.001
[8] Mhammed Aziz. F. W., 2011. The geographical analysis about the stages of urban expansion of Chamchamal City. M.Sc. Thesis, College of Education, University of Mosul.
[9] Omer, N. M. 2012. Hydrogeology and Geoelectrical studies of Groundwater in Parts of Chamchamal Area, Kurdistan Region, NE-Iraq. Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis. College of Science,
University of Sulaiamni, 144P.
[10] Frick, J., Kaiser, F. G., & Wilson, M. 2004. Environmental knowledge and conservation behavior: exploring prevalence and structure in a representative sample. Personality and Individual Differences, 37[8], 1597–1613. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2004.02.015.
[11] Mobley, C., Vagias, W. M., & DeWard, S. L. 2009. Exploring Additional Determinants of Environmentally Responsible Behavior: The Influence of Environmental Literature and Environmental Attitudes. Environment and Behavior, 42[4], 420–447.
[12] Fraj-andrés, E., & Martínez-salinas, E. 2008. Journal of International Consumer Marketing Impact of Environmental Knowledge on Ecological Consumer Behaviour Impact of
Environmental Knowledge on Ecological Consumer Behaviour : An Empirical Analysis, [March 2014], 37–41. doi:10.1300/J046v19n03.
[13] Jassim , S.Z. and Goff .J .C [eds.], 2006 . Geology of Iraq. Dolin, Prague and Moravian 219 Museum , Brno . 341P.
[14] Stevanovic, Z. and Markovic,M. ,2004. Hydrogeology of Northern Iraq.Vol.2, General Hydrogeology and Aquifer Systems. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,
Rome.246 P.
[15] Karim, K. Ahmed, K. 2011. Geology of Iraq:Basic Principles.

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Vol2 Paper 19

posted Aug 26, 2018, 11:33 PM by Yaseen Raouf Mohammed   [ updated Sep 4, 2018, 2:12 AM ]


 Aziz M. Abdullah

 Physics Department, College of Education and Natural Sciences, Charmo University, Chamchamal/ Sulaimani-Kurdistan Region-Iraq.

The development of all fields associated with life depends on electricity which puts a stress on resources and nature as well. Therefore the generation of electricity in another way (Ecologically friendly, Renewable) helps to limit the crisis.In this paper we attempt to convert the usually wasted energy into electricity by harnessing the weight of cars and trucks to compress a liquid inside two pumps in a particular system. Even though we can neglect the losses because wasted energy is used, it is still more profitable to reduce the factors that cause these losses. The concept of this research has a low maintenance and relatively easy construction. The construction of a field with hundreds or thousands of these ramps would allow us to generate a large amount of power from usually wasted energy.

Electricity generating, Renewable Energy, waste energy, speed breaker, potentialenergy, Liquid compression.

[1] Carbon Dioxide Emission From Energy Consumption: Electric Power Sector [online], Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Power Industry, The Royal Academy of Engineering, [retrieved on August. 2016 Retrieved From the Internet: cfm?tbl=T12.06#/?f=A & start=1973 &end=2015&charted=0-1-6.
[2] Ben Coxworth « Low-cost system uses passing vehicles to generate electricit”. [online] [retrieved on May. 03, 2016] from the internet: road-weight-electricity/29990/.
[3] Shakun Srivastava, AnkitAsthana -“produce electricity by the use of speed breakers,” Journal of Engineering Research and Studies, Vol.2, No.1 April-Jun 2011.
[4] Srivastava, S., & Asthana, A.(20U). Produce Electricity by the use of Speed Breakers. Journal of Engineering Research and Studies, 2 (1),163-165.
[5] Mehak Saini, Monica Dagar, Ritika, Neetika, K. K. Saini, 2015, ‘Renewable Sources of Energy Generation: Road Speed Breakers: New Horizon’, International Journal of Electronics & Communication Technology, Vol. 6, Issue 1. Available from: spl2/6 -Mehak-Saini.pdf , [15 November 2015].
[6] International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 4, Issue 6, June-2013, ISSN 2229-5518.
[7] The Royal Academy of Engineering “Wind Turbine Power Calculations, RWE npower renewables” [online], Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Power Industry,[retrieved on April. 30, 2016], 5 pp., Retrieved From the Internet: maths/pdf/exemplars-advanced/23-Wind-Turbine.pdf.
[8] John H. Robson “The Gulf Stream Turbine System - A Moving fluid’s kinetic energy” [online],[ retrieved on June. 30, 2016], Retrieved From the Internet:
[9] K.Ravivarma, B.Divya, C. P. Prajith, A. Sivamurugan, K.Vengatesan, ‘ Power Generation Using Hydraulic Mechanism at Speed bumper’, International Journal of Scientific & Engineering
Research, Volume 4, Issue 6, Available from: Power-Generation-Using-Hydraulic-Mechanism-at-Speed-bumper.pdf [June 2013].

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Vol2 Paper 18

posted Aug 24, 2018, 7:42 AM by Yaseen Raouf Mohammed   [ updated Sep 4, 2018, 2:08 AM ]


 Dindar S. Bari

 Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zakho, Zakho, Kurdistan region, Iraq.

 Haval Y. Yacoob Aldosky

 Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Duhok, Duhok, Kurdistan region, Iraq.

Electrodermal activity (EDA) is a sensitive measure of sympathetic nervous system activity. It is used to describe changes in the skin electrical properties. This review aimed to show advantages of simultaneously recordings EDA parameters at the same skin site over other recordings. The literature databases Science Web, Google Scholar was searched using terms ‘electrodermal activity’, ‘sequentially recording’, ‘simultaneously recording’, ‘skin conductance’, ‘skin potential’, and ‘skin susceptance’. Articles that include sequentially and/or simultaneously recording EDA parameters were analyzed. The review presents a description of the oldest and current methods used for recording EDA parameters and an explanation of the newest techniques used in EDA researches. Although sequentially recordings are predominant and wide spread, much effort have been made to simultaneously record skin conductance (SC) and skin potential (SP), and recently researchers realized capability of simultaneously recording SC, SP, and skin susceptance (SS) at the same skin site. The advantage of simultaneous over the sequence measurements is that the latter must be manually time realigned when measured by different instruments which means time consuming. Although the simultaneous measurements are used exclusively for research purposes at this stage, this may open horizons in the modern trends of psychophysiology applications in the near future.

Skin, EDA, simultaneously SC and SP, skin conductance, skin potential. EDA parameters.

[1] Agache, P., Humber, P. [2004], Measuring the Skin: Non-invasive Investigation, Physiology, Normal Constants ed M Philipp, Springer, Berlin.
[2] Alaoui-Ismailim O., Vernet-Maury, E., Dittmar, A., Delhomme, G. and Chanel, J. [1997], ‘Odor hedonics: connection with emotional response estimated by autonomic parameters’, Chemical senses 22, 237-248.
[3] Bari D. S., Yacoob, H. Y., Tronstad, C., Kalvøy, H. and Martinsen, Ø. G. [2017], ‘Electrodermal responses to discrete stimuli measured by skin conductance, skin potential and skin susceptance’, manuscript submitted for publication. 200
[4] Benedek, M. and Kaernbach, C. [2010], ‘Decomposition of skin conductance data by means of nonnegative deconvolution’, Psychophysiology 47, 647-658.
[5] Boucsein, W. [2012], Electrodermal activity, Springer Science & Business Media, New York.
[6] Burstein, K. R., Fenz, W. D., Bergeron, J. and Epstein, S. [1965], ‘A comparison of skin potential and skin resistance responses as measures of emotional responsivity’, Psychophysiology 2, 14-24.
[7] Collet, C., Vernet-Maury, E., Delhomme, G. and Dittmar, A. [1997], ‘Autonomic nervous system response patterns specificity to basic emotions’, Journal of the autonomic nervous system 62, 45-57.
[8] Darrow, C. W. [1964], ‘The rationale for treating the change in galvanic skin response as a change in conductance’, Psychophysiology 1, 31-38.
[9] Dawson, M. E. , Schell, A. M. and Filion, D. L. [2007], The electrodermal system, In: Handbook of psychophysiology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 200-223.
[10] Edelberg, R. [1967], Electrical properties of the skin, Methods in psychophysiology, pp. 1-53.
[11] Edelberg, R. [1971], Electrical properties of skin. In H. R. Elden [Ed.], A treatise of the skin [Biophysical properties of the skin, Vol. 1, pp. 519–551], Wiley, New York.
[12] Edelberg, R. [1972], Electrical activity of the skin: Its measurement and uses in psychophysiology, Handbook of psychophysiology, pp. 12-1011.
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Vol2 Paper 17

posted Aug 24, 2018, 7:18 AM by Yaseen Raouf Mohammed   [ updated Sep 4, 2018, 2:06 AM ]


 Botan Jawdat Abdullah

 Department of Physics, College of Science.

 M S Omar

 Salahaddin-Erbil University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

The energy band structure and density of state (DOS) are calculated in the framework of the density functional theory (DFT) for a binary ZnTe compound, as implemented in the CASTEP code. The calculations are performed using the local density approximation (LDA), generalized gradient approximation (GGA), and hybrid functionals of Heyd-Scuseria- Ernzerh of (HSE06) approaches to compute the exchange-correlation energy. The DFT results within both LDA and GGA give lower band gap energies, whereas the HSE06 give a result of 2.385 eV for this compound as its experimental value is 2.39 eV. Thus, for DFT calculations, proper selection of exchange-correction (XC) functional is necessary to obtain reliable results that are compatible with experimental data.

Energy Band Diagram; ZnTe; DFT; HSE06.

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Vol2 Paper 16

posted Aug 24, 2018, 6:52 AM by Yaseen Raouf Mohammed   [ updated Sep 4, 2018, 2:04 AM ]


 Hezha O. Rasul

 Chemistry Department, College of Science, University of Sulaimani, Sulaimani, Iraq.

 Diary I. Tofiq

 Chemistry Department, College of Science, University of Sulaimani, Sulaimani, Iraq.

The target synthesized molecule in this study was moclobemide, which is a reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase drug used as an antidepressant. The amide, moclobemide was generated from two starting materials (acyl chloride and an amine) by an acylation reaction. The acyl chloride was 4-chlorobenzoyl chloride and the amine was 4-(2-aminoethyl)
morpholine, a good yield of the hydrochloride salt of moclobemide has formed in the first step. Then, the salt was purified by recrystallization process from aqueous ethanol. Finally, the purified salt was neutralized with aqueous ammonia, in addition to extracting and isolating the free-base form of moclobemide. The main reason of this study was to modify
a synthetic route of moclobemide drug with the purpose of increasing the yield of the final product comparing to the earlier studies. In accordance with previous studies, the yield of the product was reasonably good and higher by % 32.72; this result was higher than the previously reported studies. Then IR spectrum and 1H NMR spectroscopy analyses have been
recorded to confirm the presence of the amide functionality and the chemical structure of the synthesized compound. Mechanisms of Moclobemide hydrochloride salt and product formation were suggested.

Antidepressant; Moclobemide; Drug; Recrystallization; Schiff base.

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