Research Papers

Vol2 Paper 15

posted Aug 18, 2018, 12:35 PM by Yaseen Raouf Mohammed

 EXPIRED DRUG AND CORROSION: A NEW APPLICATION OF INHIBITION IN 1M H2SO4- CARBON STEEL


 Thaera Abdulridha Mussa

 Directorate of Materials Research, Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad, Iraq.

 Kafa Khalaf Hammud

 Directorate of Materials Research, Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad, Iraq.

 Samira Ahmed Abdul Rahmman

 Directorate of Materials Research, Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad, Iraq.

 Faliah Hassan Ali

 Directorate of Materials Research, Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad, Iraq.

 ABSTRACT
Different expired pharmaceutical materials were tested in 1M H2SO4- Carbon Steel and compared with 1M HCl carbon steel results that previously published. The comparison was made with Citicoline; Carbocisteine (5%); or Paracetamol.
Because weight loss is less accuracy than other methods, inhibition efficiencies ( IE% ) was from low to high values and this might be a result of active chemical component in drug, exposure time, applied concentration beside acidic hydrolysis .
In sulfuric acid, Kads were ranged from (5.5072, 407.682, and 0.4418) to (22.8355, 2217.057, and 22.6975) for Citicoline, Paracetamol, and Carbocisteine, respectively. While Δ Gadsvalues (in negative sign) were varied from (14.1777, 22.5925, and 7.92718) to (17.7015, 29.0379, and 17.6865) for Citicoline, Paracetamol, and Carbocisteine respectively in the same corrosive solution. From Δ Gads values, it can be concluded that physisorpion than chemisorption might be occurred in 1M H2SO4 medium.


Keywords:
carbon steel, expired drugs, corrosion, weight loss, paracetamol, citicoline, carbocisteine.



 RERERENCES
[1] Bockris J and Reddy A. [2002], Modern Electrochemistry, Ionics, Vol. 2, 2nd [Ed.], Kluwer Academic Publishers, New York.
[2] Fontana M and Greene N. [1987], Corrosion Engineering, 3rd [Ed.], McGraw-Hill, New York.
[3] Bard A. and Faulkner L. [2000], Electrochemical Methods: Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.
[4] Ahmed Z. [2006], Principles of Corrosion engineering and Corrosion Control, Elsevier Science & Technology Books, New York.
[5] Leçe, H., Emregül K., Atakol O. [2008], Difference in the inhibitive effect of some Schiff base compounds containing oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur donors. Corros. Sci., 50, 1460-1468.
[6] Şahin M., Bilgiç S., and Yilmaz H. [2002], The inhibition effects of some cyclic nitrogen compounds on the corrosion of the steel in NaCl mediums. Appl. Surf. Sci. 195[1–4], 1–7.
[7] Al-Obaidi K. [2015], Science of imide with study case in Iraq: A mini review’, Der Chemica Sinica 6[7], 14-21.
[8] Al-Obaidi K. [2013], Synthesis, characterization of new heterocyclic derivatives, and studying the possibility for their applications as surfactants, antimicrobial agents and corrosion inhibitors. PhD thesis, Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Baghdad University, Baghdad, Iraq.
[9] Kubba R., Al-AzzawiA., and Hammud K. [2016], Theoretical Study of New Derivative of Cefotaxime-Amic Acid as a Corrosion Inhibitor. Iraqi J. Sci. 57[2A], 792-801.
[10] Newman D. and Cragg G. [2007], Natural products as sources of new drugs over the last 25 years. J. Nat. Prod. 70 [3], 461-477.
[11] Raja P. and Sethuraman M. [2008], Natural products as corrosion inhibitor for metals in corrosive media — a review. Mater. Lett. 62(1]: 113–116.
[12] Eddy N. and Odoemelam S. [2009], Inhibition of the corrosion of mild steel in H2SO4 by ethanol extract of Aloe vera. Resin Pigment Technol. 38[2], 111-115.
[13] Eddy N., Odoemelam S., and Akpanudoh N. [2008].Synergistic effect of amoxicillin and halides on the inhibition of the corrosion of mild steel in H2SO4. Res. J. Pure Appl. Sci. 4[12], 1963-1973.
[14] Eddy N., Odoemelam S., and Mbaba A. [2008], Inhibition of the corrosion of mild steel in HCl by sparfloxacin. Afri. J. Pure Appl. Chem. 2[12], 132-138.
[15] Gece G. [2011], Drugs: A review of promising novel corrosion inhibitors. Corros Sci. 53[12], 3873-3898.
[16] Ali F.H., Al-Shimiesawi T. A., Hammud K. K., Abdul Rahmman S. A. [2017], Carbon steel corrosion inhibition in acidic medium by expired drugs. 5th Scientific Conference, Environment
and its Pollution: Reality and Ambition towards a Vision of Sustainable Environmental Development, College of Science, Karbala University, Feb. 22-23, 2017.
[17] Vaszilcsin N., Ordodi V., and Borza A. [2012], Corrosion inhibitors from expired drugs. Int. 177 J. Pharm. 431[1-2], 241-244.
[18] Abdel Hameed R., Ismail E., Abu- Nawwas A., and AL-Shafey H. [2015], Expired Voltaren Drugs as Corrosion Inhibitor for Aluminium in Hydrochloric Acid. Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 10, 2098 – 2109.
[19] Wurtman R., Regan M., Ulus I., and Yu L. [2000], Effect of oral CDP-choline on plasma choline and uridine levels in humans. Biochem. Pharmacol. 60[7], 989-992.
[20] Ahamad I, Prasad R, and Quraishi M. [2010], Experimental and theoretical investigations of adsorption of fexofenadine at mild steel/hydrochloric acid interface as corrosion inhibitor. J Solid State Electrochem. 14, 2095-2105.
[21] Yadav D and Quraishi M. [2012], Application of Some Condensed Uracils as Corrosion Inhibitors for Mild Steel: Gravimetric, Electrochemical, Surface Morphological, UV–Visible, and Theoretical Investigations. Ind. Eng. Chem Res. 51[46], 14966-14979.
[22] Al-Azzawi A and Hammud K. [2014], Inhibitive heteroamic acid behavior against 0.3N sulfuric acid corrosion of carbon steel. J. Chem. Pharmaceu. Res. 6[7], 2808-2819.
[23] Quraishi M, Rawat J, and Ajmal M. [2000],. Dithiobiurets: a novel class of acid corrosion inhibitors for mild steel. J Appl. Electrochem. 30[6], 745-751.
[24] Saliyan V and Adhikari A. [2008] Quinolin-5-ylmethylene-3-{[8-[trifluoromethyl] quinolin -4- yl] thiol propane hydrazide as an effective inhibitor of mild steel corrosion in HCl solution. Corros. Sci. 50[1], 55-61.


View All Artical



Vol2 Paper 14

posted Aug 18, 2018, 11:50 AM by Yaseen Raouf Mohammed

 ESTIMATION OF THE CONCENTRATION OF MAGNESIUM IN HEPATITIS B PATIENTS SERUM IN FALLUJAH DISTRICT


 Wahran M.Saod

 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Anbar, Ramadi, IRAQ

 Tahseen .A. Zaidan

 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Anbar, Ramadi, IRAQ

 Abdul Wahab .A. Alfaluji

 Fallujah teaching hospital, Fallujah, IRAQ

 ABSTRACT
The aims of this study are: to compare the level of Magnesium in sera of patients infected with HBV and healthy participants, and to evaluate the efficiency of analytical techniques (Inductively Coupled plasma- Mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy that are currently used to detect Magnesium in Patients’ human sera. One hundred sixty patients’ samples and thirty healthy individuals were investigated in this study. All the patients included in this research were tested positive for HBS Ag test and their specimens were examined by profile test which include (HBS Ab, HBe Ag, HBe Ab, HBc Ab ,(IgM-IgG), HCV and HIV) and also viral load (HBV PCR) with unit (copies/ml) were carried to test the patients sera. Magnesium levels was determined by using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy inductively oupled plasma- Mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), the measured readings of AAS and ICP-MS for Magnesium was compared. The findings of this study show that the concentration range of Magnesium element between (1.59±0.30 mg\l) to (1.74±0.17mg\l).
Serum Magnesium has shown decrease in mean serum concentration in patients with chronic hepatitis B compared to healthy individuals. Moreover, (AAS and ICP-MS) analytical techniques have same efficiency in measuring the Magnesium concentration.


 Keywords:
Hepatitis, B, Serum, Magnesium and ICP-MS.



 REFERENCES
[1] FX. Bosch, J. Ribes, R. Cleries and M. Diaz “Epidemiology of Hepatocellular Carcinoma” Clin Liver Dis, vol. 9, 2005, pp; 191–211.
[2] SM. Alavian “ Immunization: an important strategy to control hepatitis B. Hepat Mon “ vol. 6 [1], 2006, pp.; 3 – 5.
[3] EE. Mast, CM. Weinbaum, AE. Fiore, MJ. Alter, BP. Bel and L. Finelli “ A Comprehensive Immunization Strategy to Eliminate Transmission of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in The United States—Mrecommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP] Part II: Immunization of Adults “ MMWR , vol. 55 , [RR-16] , 2006 , pp ; 1 – 33
[4] GM. McQuillan, PJ. Coleman, D. Kruszon-Moran, LA. Moyer and SB. Lambert “ Margolis HS. Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in the United States” The National Health and Nutrition.
[5] Examination Surveys “1976 through 1994. [See comments], Am J Public Health, vol. 89, 1999, pp.; 14 – 18.
[6] L. Jules “Dienstag Drug Therapy Hepatitis B Virus Infection” N Engl J Med, vol. 359, 2008 ¸pp; 1486 – 500.
[7] Das and MK. Maini “Innate and Adaptive Iimmune Responses in Hepatitis B Virus Infection” Dig Dis Sci, A Vol. 28 [1] 2010, p: 32 – 126.
[8] RP. Beasley “Hepatitis B Virus. The Major Etiology of Hepatocellular Carcinoma “Cancer, vol. 61¸1988, pp; 1942 – 1956.
[9] SB. Rosalki, N. Mcintyre¸ “Biochemical investigations in the management of liver disease”. Oxford textbook of clinical hepatology, 2nd ed. New York; Oxford University press; 503- 521[1999].
[10] M. Abdul Aziz , R. D. Bikha , A. S. Syed Zulfiquar , R. Qasim , A. M. Sikander , B. Marya , A. Q. Ghulam and S. Waqas” Metabolic Investigations in Patients With Hepatitis B and C” 169 World J Gastroenterol 2010 February 7 , vol. 16[5] , pp; 603-607, ISSN 1007-9327 , [2010].
[11] C. E. Housecroft, A. G. Sharpe “ Inorganic Chemistry [3rd ed.]” Prentice Hall, pp; 305–306, [2008].
[12] J. Vormann “ Magnesium: Nutrition and Metabolism. Molecular Aspect of Medicine” Vol. 23, pp; 27, [2003].
[13] C. Dean “The Magnesium Mericle” Ballantine Books, New York, [2007].
[14] S. Baig, AA. Siddiqui, W. Ahmed, H. Qureshi and A. Arif “The Association of Complex Liver Disorders With HBV Genotypes Prevalent in Pakistan” Virol J, vol. 4, 2007¸ pp: 128.
[15] F. Bianchi, M.Maffini, A. Mangia, E.Marengo and C.Mucchio” Experimental design optimization for the ICP-AES determination of Li, Na, K, Al, Fe, Mn and Zn in human serum Journal of Pharmaceutical and biomedical Analysis 43, 2007: pp659-665.
[16] PD. Mayne “ Biochemical Investigation of Renal, Water and Electrolyte Disorders. In: Clinical Chemistry in Diagnosis and Treatment “ Mayne PD [ed]. 6th edition. ELBS, [1996].
[17] VS. Venkataseshan, K. Lieberman, DU. Kim, SN. Thing and S. Dikmai “Hepatitis B-Associated Glomerulonephritis” Medicine [Baltimore], vol. 69, 1990, pp: 200- 216.
[18] P. Angeli, F. Wong, H. Watson and P. Gines “ Hyponatremia in Cirrhosis: Results of a Patient Population Survey “ Hepatology, vol. 44, 2006¸ pp: 1535-1542.
[19] M. Koivisto, P. Valta, K. Hockerstedt and L. Lindgren “Magnesium Depletion Inchronic Terminal Liver Cirrhosis” Clin Transplant, vol. 16 [5], 2002¸pp: 325-328.
[20] B. Das, P. Chandra and K.V. Thimmaraju “Serum Magnesium Level in Patients with LiverCirrhosis” Int J Biol Med Res, vol. 2[3], 2011¸pp: 709-711.



View All Artical



Vol2 Paper 13

posted Aug 14, 2018, 3:43 AM by Yaseen Raouf Mohammed   [ updated Aug 18, 2018, 11:52 AM ]

 EFFECTS OF HARDNESS OF DRINKING WATER ON THE FORMATION OF URINARY STONES IN SOME PATIENTS IN SLEMANI PROVINCE


 Razhaw K. Arif

 Chemistry department, College of Science, University of Sulaimani, Iraq

 Ahmad M. Abdullah

 Chemistry department, College of Science, University of Sulaimani, Iraq

 Ismaeel Hama Ameen Aghaways

 College of Medicine, University of Sulaimani, Iraq

 ABSTRACT
Urinary tract stone disease is a longstanding medical illness and still a common public health problem. It affects up to 20% of the general population. There are different types of urinary stones, calcium oxalate is the major component of about 80% of all stones. The hardness of drinking water in Slemani province is in high level (180 ppm), this is the major factor of our work to study the effect of it on the urinary stone disease distribution in this region, 60 patients participated with different age, gender, source of water supply. Firstly the stone samples analyzed qualitatively by (kit calculs urinaries), quantitative analysis were also performed using both methods FT-IR and thermal analysis including (TG, DTG and DTA) Results indicates that 85% of stone samples contain calcium oxalate monohydrate COM and calcium oxalate dihydrate COD. These results were improve by performing elemental analysis for stone samples by ICP-OES method which indicate presence of high Ca% also since the water hardness ranged between hard to very hard in Slemani province, we can conclude that water hardness can be considered as a predisposing extrinsic factor which may have positive correlation with urinary stone formation.


 Keywords:
Urinary stone, Hardness of water, Thermal analysis, ICP-OES, FT-IR method.



 REFERENCES
[1] Roy, D. [2006]. Role of Diet in Prevention of Recurrent Nephrolithiasis. The ORION Medical Journal, 20, pp.391-394.
[2] Abbagani, S., Gundimeda, S., Varre, S., Ponnala, D. and Mundluru, H. [2010]. Kidney Stone 160
Disease: Etiology and Evaluation. International Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology, 1[1], pp.175-182.
[3] Heilberg, I. and Schor, N. [2006]. Renal Stone Disease: Causes, Evaluation and Medical Treatment. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab, 50[4], pp.823-831.
[4] Amaro, C., Goldberg, J., Amaro, J. and Padovani, C. [2005]. Metabolic Assessment in Patients with Urinary Lithiasis.International Braz J Urol, 31[1], pp.29-33.
[5] Girija, E., Kalkura, S., Sivaraman, P. and Yokogawa, Y. [2007]. Mineralogical Composition of Urinary Calculi from Southern India. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 66,pp.632-639.
[6] Pearle, M. and Lotan, Y. [2012]. Campbell – Walsh Urology. 10th ed. Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier Inc., pp.1257- 1286.
[7] Malhotra, K. [2008]. Medical Aspects of Renal Stones. Journal Indian Academy of Clinical Medicine, 9[4], pp.282-286.
[8] Ngo, T. and Assimos, D. [2007]. Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis: Recent Progress and Future Directions. Rev Urol, 9[1], pp.17-27.
[9] Spirnak, J. and Resnick, M. [1992]. Smith’s General Urology. 13th ed. California: Appleton and Lange, Norwalk, Connecticut / San Mateo, pp.271- 298.
[10] Schwartz, B., Schenkman, N., Bruce, J., Leslie, S. and Stoller, M. [2002]. Calcium Nephrolithiasis: Effect of Water Hardness on Urinary Electrolytes. Urology, Elsevier Science Inc.,
60[1], pp.23-27.
[11] Bellizzi, V., De Nicola, L., Minutolo, R., Russo, D., Cianciaruso, B., Andreucci, M., Conte, G. and Andreucci, V. [1999]. Effects of Water Hardness on Urinary Risk Factors for Kidney
Stones in Patients with Idiopathic Nephrolithiasis. Nephron, 81[1], pp.66-70.
[12] Sahinduran, S., Buyukoglu, T., Gulay, M. and Tasci, F. [2007]. Increased Water Hardness and Magnesium Levels May Increase Occurance of Urolithiasis in Cows from the Burdur Region
[Turkey]. Vet Res Commun, 31[6], pp.665-671.
[13] Escobedo, M., Zaidi, M., De Leo’n, E. and Rivadeneyra, S. [2002]. Urolithiasis Prevalence and Risk Factors in Yucatan, Mexico.Salud Publica Mex, 44, pp.541-545.
[14] Di Silverio, F., Ricciuti, G., D’Angelo, A., Fraioli, A. and Simeoni, G. [2000]. Stone Recurrence after Lithotripsy in Patients with Recurrent Idiopathic Calcium Urolithiasis: Efficacy of
Treatment with Fiuggi Water. Eur Urol, 37[2], pp.145-148.
[15] Barker, D. and Donnan, S. [1978]. Regional Variation in the Incidence of Upper Urinary Tract Stones in England and Wales.British Medical Journal, 1, pp.67-70. 161
[16] WHO, [2011]. Hardness in Drinking –Water’, Background document for development of WHO Guidelines for Drinking –Water Quality. WHO/HSE/ WSH/10.01/10/Rev/1.
[17] Cotruvo, J. and Bartram, J. [2009]. Calcium and Magnesium in Drinking Water: Public Health Significance. World Health Organization, Geneva.



View All Artical



Vol2 Paper 12

posted Aug 14, 2018, 2:34 AM by Yaseen Raouf Mohammed

 SYNTHESES AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME QUINOLONES CONJUGATED WITH COMARIN THROUGH AMINO ACID SPACER
 

 Narmin Hamaamin Hussen

 College of Pharmacy, University of Sulaimaniya, Iraq

 Ahlam Jamil Qasir

 College of Pharmacy, University of Baghdad, Iraq

 ABSTRACT
Quinolones were conjugated with 7-hydroxycoumarin via the amine group of amino acids by reaction hydrazide group of quinolones –amino acid derivatives with formyl group to carbon 8 of 7-hydroxy-4-methyl coumarin. Synthesis of amino acid methyl esters HCl [N1 and N2], by reaction of amino acid with thionyl chloride in methanol. Synthesis amide derivatives [N3- N6] by reaction amino acid methyl esters HCl [N1 and N2] with quinolones. The DCC/ HOBt coupling reagents used for peptide bond formation. Synthesis of hydrazide derivatives [N7- N10], by reaction [N3- N6] with hydrazine hydratein ethanol. Synthesis of 7-hydroxy -4-methyl coumarin [N11] was achieved by reaction of ethyl acetoacetate with resorcinol .Synthesis of 8-formyl-7-hydroxy-4- methyl coumarin [N12], was achieved by Duff reaction, which is used for synthesis of aromatic aldehyde with hexamine. Synthesis of Hydrazone Derivatives [N13- N16] was achieved by reaction compounds [N7- N10] with compound [N12] in the presence of ethanol.Structure elucidation was confirmed by spectrometric analysis using FT-IR, 13C-NMR and CHN elemental analyzer. Synthesized compounds have been found to exhibit considerable antibacterial activity in vitro. Among the quinolones-coumarin derivatives; compounds [N15&N16] showed the highest rate of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus than Klebsiella pneumoniae.


Keywords:
Nalidixic acid; Ciprofloxacin; 7-Hydroxycoumarin; Amino acids; Antibacterial activity; DNA gyrase inhibitors.



 REFRENCES
[1] Stephan H, Matthew P, Siriram C, Stephen P, Paul W, Migue C. Quinolones: From antibiotics to autoinducers. Microbiol Rev. 2011; 35:247–74.
[2] Asif M. A mini review on the study of new broad-spectrum antimicrobial fluoroquinolone. Journal of Chemistry & Applications. 2014; 1(1):1-4.
[3] Emamia S, Shafieeb A, Foroumadi A. Quinolones: Recent structural and clinical developments. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2005; 3:123-36.
[4] Cuislnaud G, Ferry N, Seccla M, Bernard N, Sassard J.Dermination of nalidixic acid and its ‘two major metabolities in human plasma and urine by reversed phase high performance liquid
chromatography. Journal of chromatogrophy 1980; 181:399-406.
[5] Andersson MI, Macgowan AP. Development of the quinolones. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2003; 51(1):1-11.
[6] Danielt.W.CHU, Prabhavathi Fernandes B. Structure-activity relationships of the fluoroquinolones. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 1989; 33(2):131-5.
[7] Tillotson g. S. Quinolones: structure-activity relationships and future predictions. J Med Microbio1. 1996; 44:320-4.
[8] Llorente B, Leclerc F, Cedergren R. Using SAR and QSAR analysis to model the activity and structure of the quinolone-DNA complex. Bioorg Med Chem. 1996; 4:61-71.
[9] Domagala JM. Structure-activity and structure side-effect relationships for the quinolone antibacterials. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1994; 33:685–706.
[10] Schentag J, Domagala J. Structure-activity relationships with the quinolone antibiotics. Res Clin Forums. 1986; 7:9-13.
[11] Kahn A, Araujo FG, Brightly KE, Gootz TD, Remington JS Anti-Toxoplasma gondii activities and structure-activity relationships of novel fluoroquinolones related to trovafloxacin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1999; 43:1783–7.
[12] Peterson LR. Quinolone molecular structure-activity relationships: What we have learned about improving antimicrobial activity. Supplement article. 2001; 33(3):180-5.
[13] Sanchez JP, Domagala JM, Hagen SE. Quinolone antibacterial agents. Synthesis and structure- activity relationships of 8-substituted quinolone-3-carboxylic acids and 1, 8-naphthyridine-
3-carboxylic acids. J Med Chem. 1988; 31:983-91.
[14] Yoshida T, Yamamoto Y, Orita H. Studies on quinolone antibacterials. IV. Structure-activity relationships of antibacterial activity and side effects for 5- or 8-substituted and 5, 8-disubstituted-
7(3-amino-1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-cyclopropyl-1, 4-dihydro-4-oxoquinoline-3- carboxylic 150 acids. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 1996; 44:1074–85.
[15] Sugino A, Peebles C, Krenzer K. N, Cozzarelli N. R. Mechanism of action of nalidixic acid: purification of Escherichia coli nalA gene product and its relationship to DNA gyrase and a novel nicking-closing enzyme. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 1977; 74:4767–71.
[16] Greenwood D, Barer M, Slack R, Irving W. Medical Microbiology Eighteenth edition ed2012.
[17] Ojala T. Biological Screening of plant coumarins [PhD thesis]: University of Helsinki; 2001.
[18] Abdel-Latifa S.A, Mansourb S.E, Ibrahimb D.M. Spectroscopic, thermal, magnetic and conductimetric studies on some 7-hydroxy-4-methyl-8-(arylazo)coumarins and their complexes
with some divalent transition metal ions. IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry (IOSR-JAC). 2013; 5(5):48-58.
[19] Jae-Chu Jung, Eunyoung Lim, Yongnam Lee, Dongguk Min, Jeremy Ricci, Oee-Sook Park, et al. Total synthesis of flocoumafen via knoevenagel condensation and intramolecular ring
cyclization: General access to natural products. Molecules 2012;17: 2091-102.
[20] Irgashev RA, Karmatsky AA, Slepukhin PA, Rusinov GL, Charushin VN. A convenient approach to the design and synthesis of indolo (3, 2-c) coumarins via the microwave assisted
Cadogan reaction Tetrahedron Letters. 2013; 54:5734-8.
[21] Fournier B, Hooper DC. Mutations in topoisomerase iv and DNA gyrase of staphylococcus aureus: Novel pleiotropic effects on quinolone and coumarin activity. Antimicrobial agents
and chemotherapy. 1998; 42(1):121–8.
[22] Stefan B. Amino acid transport across mammalian intestinal and renal epithelia. Physiol Rev 2008; 88:249–86.
[23] Carsten A, Florian L, Stefan B. Function and structure of heterodimeric amino acid transporters. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2001; 281:1077– 93.
[24] Bertran J, Testar X, Zorzano A. A new age for mammalian plasma membrane amino acid transporters. Physiol Biochem. 1994; 4:217–41.
[25] Cheeseman C Role of intestinal basolateral membrane in absorption of nutrients. Am J Physiol. 1992; 32:482– 8.
[26] Clayden J, Greeves N, Warren S, Wothers P. HOBT as an important reagent in peptide synthesis. In: Organic chemistry Oxford University Press Inc. 2001:1171-2.
[27] Lester H, Mager M, Corey J. Permeation properties of neurotransmitter transporters Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 1994; 34:219-49.
[28] Rana A. Synthesis of coumarin derivatives coupled to amino acid esters and studying their biological activity as antimicrobial agents. Iraqi J Pharm Sci. 2012; 21(2):1-6.
[29] Ashish T, Rajesh N, Kohli D, Uppadhyay R. Nalidixic acid prodrugs: Amides from amino acid ester and nalidixic acid. Arch Pharm Res. 1991;14 (1):48-51.
[30] Halli MB, Sumathi RB, Kinni M. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and biological evaluation studies of Sciff base derived from naphthofuran-2-carbohydrazide with 8-formyl-7-
hydroxy-4-methyl coumarin and its metal complexes Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular 151 and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 2012;99:46-56.
[31] Shokhan J. Synthesis and chaaterization of new coumarin derivatives containing various moieties with antibacterial activities [M.Sc Thesis]. Iraq: University of Sulaimani 2015.
[32] Lamani KS, Kotresh O, Phaniband MA, Kadakol JC. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial properties of Schiff bases derived condensation of 8-Formyl-7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin
and substituted triazole derivatives E-Journal of Chemistry 2009;6:239-46.
[33] Twana M. Synthesis of new adenosine 5-peptidyl analogues with expected biological activity [M.Sc Thesis]. Iraq: University of Salahaddin 2008.
[34] Taori A, Nema R, Kohli DV, Uppadhyay RK. Nalidixic Acid Prodrugs: Amides from amino acid ester and nalidixic acid. Arch Pharm Res. 1991; 14(1):48-51.
[35] Mantri N, Jadon G. To synthesized Mannich bases of 7-hydroxy-4-methyl coumarin with different secondary amine. International Journal of Advanced Research in Pharmaceutical and
Bio Sciences. 2013; 3 (2):117-26.
[36] Tyagi B, Mishra MK, Iasra RV. Synthesis of 7-substituted 4-methyl coumarins by Pechman reaction using nano-crystaline sulfated-zirconia. Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical.
2007; 276:47-56.
[37] Naceur H, Al-Ayed A, Ben Said R, Alary F. Synthesis and characterization of new thiazolidinones containing coumarin moieties and their antibacterial and antioxidant activities. Molecules
2012; 17: 9321-34.
[38] Jorgensen J, Ferraro M. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing: A review of general principles and contemporary practices. Medical microbiology. 2009; 49:1749–55.
[39] Nagayama A, Yamaguchi K, Watanabe K, Tanaka M, and Kobayashi I, Nagasawa Z. Final report from the committee on antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Japanese Society of Chemotherapy.2008; 14:383-92.
[40] Irith W, Hilpert K, Robert E. Agar and broth dilution methods are used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antimicrobial substances. Nature Protocols. 2008;3:163-75.


View All Artical





Vol2 Paper 11

posted Aug 14, 2018, 1:44 AM by Yaseen Raouf Mohammed

 INVESTIGATING THE QUALITY OF THE DIFFERENT TABLE SALTS AVAILABLE IN CHAMCHAMAL DISTRICT


 Aryan H. Fatah

 General Science Department, College of Education and Natural Sciences, Charmo University, Chamchamal/ Sulaimani-Kurdistan Region-Iraq.

 Hayman J. Abdoul

General Science Department, College of Education and Natural Sciences, Charmo University, Chamchamal/ Sulaimani-Kurdistan Region-Iraq.

 Chrakhan R. Rashid

 General Science Department, College of Education and Natural Sciences, Charmo University, Chamchamal/ Sulaimani-Kurdistan Region-Iraq.

 Dana Khdr Sabir

 General Science Department, College of Education and Natural Sciences, Charmo University, Chamchamal/ Sulaimani-Kurdistan Region-Iraq.

 ABSTRACT
Table salt, or sodium chloride salt, has a significant role in food industry worldwide and it is an essential dietary intake for any healthy human-being. Bread, soy sauce, salted vegetables, fruits, meats and fish provide most of the dietary salt to all individuals. In this paper, several parameters of the common table salts in the Chamchamal region were assessed. The salts used in this study are those which are widely available in the region and they have either been completely produced and packed in Iran; or produced in Iran, but packed in Iraqi-Kurdistan or entirely produced and packed in Iraqi-Kurdistan. The quality of the salts were assessed using several parameters including chemical tests: purity%, iodine, pH, insoluble content, as well as physical tests: water content%, odour, colour, and taste. The tested parameters of the table salt samples were compared to each other and to the standard limits of the World Food Programme (WFP,) Iraq and Kurdistan regional government parameters. This study resulted listing those brands of salts that are in good agreement with the standards required by Kurdistan regional government, as well as classifying the salt brands which are in disagreement to meet the quality control requirements.


 Keywords:
Table salts, quality, purity, iodine, sodium, thyroid hormones.



 REFERENCES
[1] A.F. Wells, Structural inorganic chemistry, 5th edition, Oxford University Press, 2012, Oxford.
[2] M. Steiger, Crystal growth in porous materials-II: Influence of crystal size on the crystallization pressure, Journal of Crystal Growth, 282, 2005, 470-481.
[3] L. Kloss, J.D. Meyer, L. Graeve , W. Vetter, Sodium intake and its reduction by food reformulation in the European Union - A review, NFS Journal, 1, 2015, 9-19.
[4] G.A. MacGregor, H.E. de Wardener, Salt, diet and health, seawater, 223, Cambridge University Press, 1998.
[5] W.P. Bolen, 2013 Minerals Yearbook, US Geological Survey (USGS), US geological srvey 2013.
[6] S. Murdo, Application of pixe to monitor the quality of salt from salt farming areas in Thailand, International Journal of PIXE, 1 & 2, 2012, 195-200.
[7] Assessment of iodine deficiency disorders and monitoring their elimination, A guide for programme managers, 3rd edition, World Health Organization, unicef, ICCIDD, 2007.
[8] E.K. Alexander, E.N. Pearce, G.A. Brent, R.S. Brown, H. Chen, C. Dosiou, W.A. Grobman, P. Laurberg, J.H. Lazarus, S.J. Mandel, R.P. Peeters, S. Sullivan, 2017 Guidelines of the American
thyroid association for the diagnosis and management of thyroid disease during pregnancy and the postpartum, American Thyroid Association, 3, 2017, 315-389.
[9] V.H. Nguyen, OSPFQ, World Food Programme (WFP), Technical specifications for Iodized salt, Analytical requirements, the principal tests, Version: 13.1, 2013, (www.foodqualityandsafety.
wfp.org/specifications), (accessed on June 2017).
[10] Central agency for standardization and quality control, (1984), Iraqi standard no. (111) Table salt for food processing,3 () الجهاز المركزي للتقييس والسيطرة النوعية ,) 4891 (,المواصفة العراقية رقم) 111
(ملح الطعام للاسعمالات الغذائية, ٣
[11] Standard limits of table salt, published by ministry of health-KRG, General directorate of law administration, no. 12817, dated on 11/9/2014.
[12] F.J. He, N.R.C. Campbell, G.A. MacGregor, Reducing salt intake to prevent hypertension and cardiovascular disease, Rev Panam Salud Publica, 4, 2012, 293-300.
[13] F.J. He, G.A. MacGregor, Reducing population salt intake worldwide: From evidenceto implementation, Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, 52, 2010, 363-382.111
[14] P. Strazzullo, L.D. Elia, N.B. Kandala, F.P. Cappuccio, Salt intake, stroke, and cardiovascular disease: Meta analysis of prospective studies, BMJ, 339, 2009, 1-9.
[15] I. Elmadfa, European nutrition and health report 2009, Forum of Nutrition Vol. 62, (accessed on June 2017).
[16] M.B Zimmermann, K. Boelaert, Iodine deficiency and thyroid disorders, The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, 4, 2015, 286-295.
[17] P.W.F. Fischer, M. L’Abbe, Iodine in iodized table salt and in sea salt, Journal-Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology, 2, 1980, 103-104.
[18] R. Casiday, R. Frey, Blood, sweat, and buffers: pH regulation during exercise acid-base equilibria experiment, Chemistry Department, Washington University, (http://www.chemistry.
wustl.edu/~edudev/LabTutorials/CourseTutorials/bb/Buffer/Buffers.pdf), (accessed on June 2017).
[19] G.S. Zavorsky, L.C. Lands, W. Schneider, F. Carli, Comparison of fingertip to arterial blood samples at rest and during exercise, Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 15, 2005, 263-270.
[20] Psychological harassment information association, Acid-base balance and blood pH, (http:// www.psychologicalharassment.com/acidbase-balance.htm), (accessed on June 2017).
[21] K. Berend, A.P.J. De Vries, R.O.B. Gans, Physiological approach to assessment of acid-base disturbances, The New England Journal of Medicine, 371, 2014, 1434-1445.
[22] J.L. Seifter, Integration of acid-base and electrolyte disorders, The New England Journal of Medicine, 371, 2014, 1821-1831.
[23] H.J.A. Drogue, N.E. Madias, Managemant of life threatening acid-base disorders, The New England Journal of Medicine, 338, 1998, 107-111.


View All Artical



Vol2 Paper 10

posted Aug 14, 2018, 12:58 AM by Yaseen Raouf Mohammed

 EFFECTS OF EXCESS VITAMIN B6, B12 INTAKE ON SERUM LIPID PROFILE AND HOMOCYSTEINE AS MARKER FOR CARDIO VASCULAR DISEASE IN RATS


 Ehssan Nissiaf Jasim Al-Obaidy

 Department of Physiology, pharmacology and Biochemistry College of Veterinary Medicine- Diyala University/Iraq

 Muna, M.Ismail

 Department of Physiology, pharmacology and Biochemistry College of Veterinary Medicine- Diyala University/Iraq

 Nadia Ahmed Salih Al-Guburi

 Department of Chemistry College of Education –Tikrit University /Iraq

 ABSTRACT
Vitamin B12, B6 being water-soluble is excreted in the urine when administered in excess. Lipid profile and Homocystien is important relation with heart disease. High levels of the amino acid homocysteine in the blood are associated with heart disease increased intake of vitamin B12 has been found to decrease homocysteine levels, Aim: The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of dietary excess of vitamin B6 and B12 total lipid and the Homocystein. Materials and Methods: A total of 48 rabbits were included in the study. Control groups (CG-10, n = 8 for 10 days; CG-15, n = 8 for 15 days; CG-20, n = 8 for 20 days). The experimental groups (EG-10, n = 8; EG-15, n = 8; EG-20, n = 8) received 5 mg/ kg vitamin B6, B12 daily for 10 days, 15 days and 20 days .HDL,Cholesterol and total lipid levels and Homocystiene were measured and compared in CGs and EGs. Results: The total serum cholesterol levels were significantly lower (P < 0.05) although serum HDL levels were significantly higher (P < 0.01) in all EGs. Total serum lipid levels were higher in EG-15 and EG-20 groups than in CGs. a relationship between serum total lipid and HDL levels in theEG-15 and EG-20 groups is suggested. Conclusions: Dietary excess of vitamin B6, B12 intake reduces serum total cholesterol levels, but not serum HDL and total lipid levels, and also causes decrease in homocystine levels as treatment.


 Keywords: 
Vitamin B12, B6, Cholesterol, Lipid profile, Homocystiene.



  REFERENCES


[1] C.A.Burtis and E.Ashwood.Tietz fundamentals of clinical biochemistry. Saunders, Elsevier: Missouri 2008. p. 488–9.
[2] V. Herbert. Vitamin B-12. In: Nutrition reviews; Present Knowledge in Nutrition. The Nutrition Foundation Inc, Washington DC, [1984] pp 347-64.
[3] V. Herbert. The 1986 Herman Award lecture. Nutrition science as a continually unfolding story: the folate and vitamin B-12 paradigma. Am J Clin Nutr 1987, 46: 387- 402.101
[4] V. Herbert and K.C Das. Folic acid and vitamin B12 .In: Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 8th ed. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger; 1994,402–425.
[5] S.K.Lam. Advanced Nutrition: Macronutrients, Micronutrients, and Metabolism. CRC Press,
Taylor & Francis Group. 2009. pp34-50.
[6] Z.G.Abbas and A.B Swai. Evaluation of the efficacy of thiamine and pyridoxine in the treatment of symptomatic diabetic peripheral neuropathy. East Afr Med J 1997; 74: 803–807.
[7] N.S Lee, G .Muhs and H.Fisher.Dietary pyridoxine interaction with tryptophan or histidine on brain serotonin and histamine metabolism. Pharmacol Biochem Behav1988; 29: 559-564.
[8] V .R. Avichandran and R. Selvam. Increased lipid peroxidation in kidney of vitamin B6-deficient rats. Biochem Int 1990; 21: 599–605.
[9] R. Selvam and V. Ravichandran. Increased lipid peroxidation in kidney of vitamin B6-deficient rats. Biochem Int 1991; 23: 1007-1017.
[10] J.R. Kanofsky and P.Sima. Singlet oxygen production from the reactions of ozone with biological molecules. J Biol Chem 1991; 266: 9039-9042
[11] A.N John .Biochemical, Physiological, Molecular Aspects of Human Nutrition Saunders, Elsevier Inc. [2006].
[12] J.L.Loew.Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline.Washington, DC: National Academy Press,1998.
[13] N.A.Al-Guburi and E.N.Al-Obaidy. Study Plasma Homocysteine Level in Alzheimer’s Disease Andits Relationship with the Folic Acid and Vitamin B12 in Alshamaiah Baghdad Hospital
.International Journal of Science and Research [IJSR]. [March 2013]: 614-620.
[14] G. Anker and P.M Ueland. Plasma levels of atherogenic amino acid homocysteine in postmenopausal women with breast cancer treated with tamoxifen. Int J Cancer1995;60:365–8.
[15] J.M .Alinowska and J.Kolodziejczyk.The disturbance of hemostasis induced by hyperhomocysteinemia; the role of antioxidants.2015.Vol. 59, No 2/2012185–194.
[16] A.M.Troen , E.Lutgens and D.E.Smith.The atherogenic effect of excess methionine intake PNAS December 9, 2003 vol. 100 no. 25 15089–15094
[17] S. R. Ravichandran. Lipid peroxidation in liver of vitamin B6 deficient rats. J Nutr Biochem 1991; 2: 245–250.
[18] J.S.Lim. Pyridoxine and pyridoxamine inhibits superoxide radicals and prevents lipid peroxidation, protein glycosylation, and [Na++K+]-ATPase activity reduction in high glucose- treated human erythrocytes. Free Radic Biol Med 2001; 30: 232–237.
[19] V.Kucukatay.A.A.Yargicoglu.Changes in somatosensorial evoked potentials, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in experimental diabetes: effect of sulfur dioxide. Arch Environ
Health 2003; 58: 14-22.
[20] M.C.Schaeffer , D.Gretz and D.W.Gietzen. Dietary excess of vitamin B-6 affects the concentrations of amino acids in the caudate nucleus and serum and the binding properties of 102
serotonin receptors in the brain cortex of rats. J Nutr 1998; 128: 1829-1835.
[21] A.Sermet. M.Atmaca and H. Diken. The effect of pyridoxine supplementation on plasma lipoproteins and its relationship with atherogenic risk. Biomedical Letter 1999; 59: 7-14.
[22] W.K.Helzlsouer and K.J.Comstock .A prospective study on folate, B12, and pyridoxal 5’- phosphate [B6] and breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1999;8:209–17.
[23] J.Chen and E.Giovannucci. A methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism and the risk of colorectal cancer. Cancer Res 1996;56:4862–4.
[24] C.B.Delorme and P.J.Lupien. The effect of a long-term excess of pyridoxine on the fatty acid composition of the major phospholipids in the rat. J Nutri 1976; 106: 976-984.
[25] C.M.Hinse and P.J Lupien. Cholesterol metabolism and vitamin B6. 3. The stimulation of hepatic cholesterogenesis in the vitamin B6- deficient rat. Can J Biochem 1981; 49: 933-935.
[26] L.F Major and P.F Goyer. Effects of disulfiram and pyridoxine on serum cholesterol. Ann Intern Med 2000; 11: 93-96.
[27] S. Ziakka and G .Rammos. The effect of vitamin B6 and folate supplements on plasma homocysteine and serum lipids levels in patients on regular hemodialysis. Int Urol Nephrol 2001; 33: 559-562
[28] T. Inubushi and T .Takasawa. Changes of glucose metabolism and skin-collagen neogenesis in vitamin B6 deficiency. Biofactors 2005; 23: 59-67.
[29] A .Wasilewska and M. Narkiewicz. Is there any relationship between lipids and vitamin B levels in persons with elevated risk of atherosclerosis.Med Sci Monit2003; 9: 147-151.
[30] C .Loschiavo and S .Ferrari. Modification of serum and membrane lipid composition induced by diet in patients with chronic renal failure. Clin Nephrol 1990; 34: 267-271.
[31] W.Y.Ong , B. Tan and N.Pan. Increased iron staining in the cerebral cortex of cholesterol fed rabbits. Mech Ageing Dev 2004; 125[4]: 305-313.
[32] R. Harripersad and F.J. Burger. The effect of a subnormal dose of vitamin B6 on plasma lipid in the rat. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1997; 67: 95-101.
[33] D.M. Morre and A.Z.Wasynczuk. Neuronal development in vitamin B6 deficiency. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1990; 585: 202-218.[34] R. Demir, G .Acar, G .Tanriover. Effects of excess vitamin B6 intake on cerebral cortexneurons in rat: an ultrastructural study. Folia Histochem Cytobiol 2005; 43:143-


View All Artical



Vol2 Paper 9

posted Aug 14, 2018, 12:51 AM by Yaseen Raouf Mohammed   [ updated Aug 14, 2018, 1:18 AM ]

 VITAMIN D STATUS AND PREGNANCY OUTCOMES


 Dereen Najat

 University of Sulaimani/college of Science/chemistry department.

 ABSTRACT
Vitamin D deficiency may cause serious health complications in both pregnant women and their fetuses. Despite the abundance of sunlight in the Middle East, many research groups confirmed alarming vitamin D deficiency in the region. For the first time, this study investigated the association between vitamin D levels with miscarriage incidences in pregnant women residing in Sulaimani city. The participants in this study were 390 vieled and nonviled pregnant women. Each participant completed a questionnaire about her lifestyle, including smoking status and nutritional supplement usage. An electrochemiluminescence binding assay was used to measure non-fasting serum concentration of total 25-hydroxyvitamin D. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis, P< 0.05 was considered significant throughout all the tests. Of all the women in this study, 82.3% were severely vitamin D deficient, 9.7 % were vitamin D insufficient, whereas only 7.9 % of the pregnant women were vitamin D sufficient. In total 17.1% of the study participants had pregnancy loss (miscarriage, still birth) and 8.9% of the participants had miscarriages. In conclusion, a high percentage of participitants had vitamin D deficiency; also vitamin D deficiency was not associated with pregnancy losses; further research is needed to confirm vitamin D roles in pregnancy losses. 


 Keywords:
25 hydroxyvitamin D; miscarriages; dietary calcium intake; dietary vitamin D intake; vitamin D deficiency; prevalence.



 REFERENCES
[1] Gorham, E.D. et al., 2007. Optimal Vitamin D Status for Colorectal Cancer Prevention. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 32[3], pp.210–216.
[2] Botella-Carretero, J.I. et al., 2007. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with the metabolic syndrome in morbid obesity. Clinical nutrition [Edinburgh, Scotland], 26[5], pp.573–80.
[3] Dobnig, H. et al., 2008. Independent Association of Low Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and 1, 25-Dihydroxyvitamin D Levels With All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality. Archives of Internal Medicine, 168[12], p.1340.
[4] Zittermann, A. et al, 2003. Vitamin D in preventive medicine: are we ignoring the evidence? British Journal of Nutrition
[5] Spedding, S., 2014. Vitamin D and depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing studies with and without biological flaws. Nutrients, 6[4], pp.1501–18
[6] Vandevijvere, S. et al., 2012. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women: a national cross-sectional survey. PloS one, 7[8], p.e43868.
[7] Hovsepian, S. et al., 2011. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among adult population of Isfahan City, Iran. Journal of health, population, and nutrition, 29[2], pp.149–55.
[8] Nichols, E.K. et al., 2012. Vitamin D status and determinants of deficiency among non-pregnant Jordanian women of reproductive age. European journal of clinical nutrition, 66[6], pp.751–6
[9] Al-Turki, H.A. et al., 2008. 25-Hydoxyvitamin D levels among healthy Saudi Arabian women.
Saudi medical journal, 29[12], pp.1765–8.
[10] Karras, S.N. et al., 2015. Vitamin D during pregnancy: why bservational studies suggest deficiency and interventional studies show no improvement in clinical outcomes? A narrative
review. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, 38[12], pp.1265–1275.
[11] Pérez-López, F.R. et al., 2015. Effect of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy on maternal and neonatal outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled
trials. Fertility and Sterility, 103[5], p.1278–1288.e4.
[12] Al-Shaikh, G.K. et al., 2016. Impact of vitamin D deficiency on maternal and birth outcomes in the Saudi population: a cross-sectional study. BMC pregnancy and childbirth, 16, p.119.
[13] Everett, C. et al., 1997. Incidence and outcome of bleeding before the 20th week of pregnancy: prospective study from general practice. BMJ, 315[7099].
[14] Lathi, R. et al., 2011. First Trimester Miscarriage Evaluation. Seminars in Reproductive Medicine, 29[6], pp.463–469.
[15] Itoh, H. et al., 2011. Association between night-shift work and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in Japanese male indoor workers: a cross-sectional study. Industrial health, 49[5], pp.658–62
[16] Leridon, H. et al., 1976. Facts and artifacts in the study of intra-uterine mortality: A reconsideration from pregnancy histories. Population Studies, 30[2], pp.319–335.92
[17] Poorolajal, J. et al., 2014. Predictors of miscarriage: a matched case-control study. Epidemiology and health, 36, p.e2014031.
[18] Brannon, P.M. & Picciano, M.F. et al., 2011. Vitamin D in Pregnancy and Lactation in Humans. Annual Review of Nutrition, 31[1], pp.89–115.
[19] Hussain, A.N. et al., 2014. Increasing trends and significance of hypovitaminosis D: a population- based study in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Archives of Osteoporosis, 9[1], p.190.
[20] Everett, C. et al., 1997. Incidence and outcome of bleeding before the 20th week of pregnancy: prospective study from general practice. BMJ, 315[7099].
[21] Liu, N.Q. & Hewison, M., 2012. Vitamin D, the placenta and pregnancy. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 523[1], pp.37–47.
[22] Ma, R. et al., 2012. Expressions of vitamin D metabolic components VDBP, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, and VDR in placentas from normal and preeclamptic pregnancies. American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism, 303[7], pp.E928-35.[23] Pandey, S. & Tyagi, R., 2014. Risk factors for miscarriage from a prevention perspective: a nationwide follow-up study. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology,121[11], pp.1439–1439.


View All Artical



Vol2 Paper 8

posted Aug 13, 2018, 6:30 AM by Yaseen Raouf Mohammed

 COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE CYTOTOXIC EFFECT BETWEEN NIGELLA SATIVA ETHANOLIC EXTRACT AND METHOTREXATE DRUG.


 Zainab Yaseen Mohammed Hasan

 Biotechnology research center-Al-Nahrain University.

 Bashar Sabry

Collage of pharmacy- Al-Nahrain University.

 ABSTRACT
Nigella sativa seeds had been used traditionally for health improvement and cure different diseases as folk herpes. In the current study evaluation for N.sativa alcoholic extract effect was carried on viability of two cancerous cell lines and one normal cells culture in comparison to methotrexate drug. Results showed that the extract showed an anticancer activity on both cancerous cell lines with no effect on the normal cells culture in different manner with different N.sativa extract concentrations towards the two cell lines.


 Keywords: 
Nigella sativa, Methotrexate, Hep-2 cell line, L20-B cell line, Tissue culture, .CEF cell line.



 REFERENCES
[1] Gruenwald,J.; Brendler,T.,; and Jaenicke,C.(2000).PHYSICIAN’S DESK REFERENCE(PDR) for Herbal Medicines.vol.14th,Mark,A.Friedman,Medical Economic Company, Mntrale.
[2] Fong,H.H.(2002).Integration of herbal medicine into modern medical practices;issues and prospects.Integr Cancer Ther.vol.1,page 287-293.
[3] Salem,M.L.; and Hossain,M.S.(2000).Protective effect of black seed oil from Nigella sativa against murine cytomegalovirus infection.Int.J.Immunopharmacol.vol.22,page 729-740.
[4] Chopra,R.N.; CS.L.; Handa,K.L. and Kapur,L.D.(1958).Indigenous Drugs of India, page 516-569.UNDhur &Sons,Calcutta.
[5] Huffman,M.A.(2003).Animal self-medication and ethno-medicine;exploration and exploitation of the medicinal properties of plants.Proc Nutr SOC.vol.62,page 371-381.
[6] Bamosa,A.O.(2010).Effect of Nigella sativa seeds on the glycemic control of patient with type2 diabetes mellitus. Indian.J.Physiol and Pharmacol.vol54,page 344-354.
[7] Mbarek,L.;Mouse,H.; and Elabbadi,N.(2007).Anti-tumor properties of black seeds extracts. Braz.J.Med.Biol.Res.vol.40,page 839-847.
[8] Kacem,R. and Meraihi,Z,(2010).Effect of essential oil extracted from Nigella sativa seeds and its components on human neutrophil activity.Yakugaku Zasshi.vol.126,page 301-305.
[9] Hajhashemi,V.;Ghannadi,A.; and Jafarabadi,H.(2004).Black cumin seed essential oil as 83 potant analgesic and antiinflamitory drug.Phytother.Res.vol.18,page 195-199.
[10] Saptha,J.;Mahesh,K.; and Muralidhara,R.(2009).Analysis of Nigella sativa seeds and Antimicrobial Activity.Braz.Arch.Biol.Technol.vol.52,page 1189-1192.
[11] Kanter,M.;Demir,H.; Karakaya,C.(2005).Gastroprotective activity of Nigella sativa against acute alcohol –induced gastric mucosal injury in rat. World J Gastroenterol.vol.14,page 6662-6666.
[12] Schleicher,P.; and Saleh,M.(1998).Black seed cumin: the magical Egyptain herp for allergies, asthma, and immune disorders .Rochester,Vermont:Healing Arts Press;page 90.
[13] Badray,,O.;Abdei-Naim,M.; and Hamda,F.(2000).The influence of thymoquinone on doxorubicin- induced nephropathy in rats. Toxicol,vol. 143,page 219-226.
[14] Ali,B.; and Blunden,G.(2003).Pharmacological and toxicological properties of Nigella sativa. Phytother.Res.vol17,page 299-305.
[15] Duke,J.K.(1992).Handbook of Phytochemical Constituents of GRAS Herbs and other Economic Plants. CRC Press,,Inc.,Florida.
[16] Mozaffari,F.S.; Ghorbanli,A.;and Sepehr,M.F.(2000).The effect of water stress on the seed of Nigella sativa.J .Essential Oil Res.,vol.12,page 36-38.
[17] Harborne J B.(1984).Phytochemical Methods:A guide to modern techniques of plant analysis, second edition, Chapman and Hall, London.
[18] Freshney, R.I. (2012). Culture of Animal Cell. Sixth Edition.Wily-Liss,New York.
[19] Al-Shamery, A.M.H., The study o f new castle disease virus effect in the treatment of transplanted timer in mice. M.Sc. thesis. College of Verterinary Medicine, University of Baghdad. Iraq, 2003.
[20] Chih, P.L.;Wei, J.T.; Yuang, L.L.; and Yuh, C.K.(2004).The extracts from Nelumbonucifera suppress cell cycle progression, cytokine genes expression, and cell proliferation in human
peripheral blood mononuclear cells.Life Science, vol.75, pp:699-716.
[21] AI-Awadi,F.M anaGumaa,K.A.1987.Studies on the activity of an individual plants of antidiabetic plant mixture.Acta.Diabetol.Let.vol.24,page 37-41.
[22] Gilani,A.H.;Jabeen,Q,; and UllahKhan,M.(2004).A Review of Medicinal Uses and Pharmacological Activities of Nigella sativa..Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences.
[23] Lim,T.K.(2010).Edible Medicinal And Non-Medicinal Plant fruits :Immunomodulatory of Nigella sativa.Singapore Med.J.vol5,page230-234.
[24] Gali-Muhtasib,H.;Diab-Assaf,M.; Al-Hmaira,J.(2004).Thymoquinone extracted from black seed triggers apoptotic cell death in human colorectal cancer cells via p53-dependent mechanism..
InJ.Oncol.vol 25 , page 857-866.


View All Artical



Vol2 Paper 7

posted Aug 13, 2018, 6:01 AM by Yaseen Raouf Mohammed   [ updated Aug 13, 2018, 6:01 AM ]

 Β-CATENIN AND PROSTACYCLIN RECEPTOR DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATE HAIR FOLLICLE DERMAL PAPILLA CELLS.


 Karzan Ghafur Khidhir

 Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Sulaimani, Sulaimani, Iraq.

ABSTRACT
Human hair follicle dermal papilla (DP) cells are widely used to study the molecular mechanisms which underlie hair development. Prostamides, prostaglandins and their analogues are potent stimulators of hair growth, but, knowledge on their mechanism of action is limited. This study aims to improve understanding of the mechanism of latanoprost action in the human DP cells and determines the role of β-Catenin signalling and prostacyclin receptor (IP) in the pathway. DP cells were isolated after 10 days of culture with/without latanoprost and pooled for RNA extraction. PCR was carried out to confirm expression of β-Catenin and IP genes; and expression levels were compared using quantitative real-time PCR analysis. PCR analysis identified β-Catenin and IP genes in scalp DP cells and Quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated elevated expression of β-Catenin and IP in DP cells treated with latanoprost, and the most significant increase was achieved in cells treated with 100 nM Latanoprost. Identification of β-Catenin and IP genes in the DP cells and up regulation of these genes in cells treated with latanoprost indicate that latanoprost acts through Wnt/β-Catenin signalling pathway and prostacyclin receptor. So the β-Catenin and prostacyclin receptors play important role in signalling pathways within human hair follicle DP cells.


 Keywords:
 β-Catenin, Dermal Papilla, Hair, Quantitative Real-Time PCR, Prostacyclin.



 REFERENCES
[1] Schneider, M.R., R. Schmidt-Ullrich, and R. Paus, The hair follicle as a dynamic miniorgan. Curr Biol, 2009. 19[3]: p. R132-42.
[2] Millar, S.E., Molecular mechanisms regulating hair follicle development. J Invest Dermatol, 2002. 118[2]: p. 216-25.
[3] Boisvert, W.A., et al., Hair growth-promoting effect of Geranium sibiricum extract in human dermal papilla cells and C57BL/6 mice. BMC Complement Altern Med, 2017. 17[1]: p. 109.
[4] Garg, S. and A.G. Messenger, Alopecia areata: evidence-based treatments. Semin Cutan Med 77 Surg, 2009. 28[1]: p. 15-8.
[5] Rogers, N.E. and M.R. Avram, Medical treatments for male and female pattern hair loss. J Am Acad Dermatol, 2008. 59[4]: p. 547-66; quiz 567-8.
[6] Shorter, K., et al., Human hair follicles contain two forms of ATP-sensitive potassium channels, only one of which is sensitive to minoxidil. FASEB J, 2008. 22[6]: p. 1725-36.
[7] Messenger, A.G. and J. Rundegren, Minoxidil: mechanisms of action on hair growth. Br J Dermatol, 2004. 150[2]: p. 186-94.
[8] Whiting, D.A., et al., Efficacy and tolerability of finasteride 1 mg in men aged 41 to 60 years with male pattern hair loss. Eur J Dermatol, 2003. 13[2]: p. 150-60.
[9] Curran, M.P., Bimatoprost: a review of its use in open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Drugs Aging, 2009. 26[12]: p. 1049-71.
[10] Woodward, D.F., et al., The pharmacology and therapeutic relevance of endocannabinoid derived cyclo-oxygenase [COX]-2 products. Pharmacol Ther, 2008. 120[1]: p. 71-80.
[11] McCarey, B.E., B.M. Kapik, and F.E. Kane, Low incidence of iris pigmentation and eyelash changes in 2 randomized clinical trials with unoprostone isopropyl 0.15%. Ophthalmology, 2004. 111[8]: p. 1480-8.
[12] Plikus, M.V. and C.M. Chuong, Complex hair cycle domain patterns and regenerative hair waves in living rodents. J Invest Dermatol, 2008. 128[5]: p. 1071-80.
[13] Faghihi, G., F. Andalib, and A. Asilian, The efficacy of latanoprost in the treatment of alopecia areata of eyelashes and eyebrows. Eur J Dermatol, 2009. 19[6]: p. 586-7.
[14] El-Ashmawy, A.A., I.H. El-Maadawy, and G.M. El-Maghraby, Efficacy of Topical Latanoprost Versus Minoxidil and Betamethasone Valerate on The Treatment of Alopecia Areata. J Dermatolog Treat, 2017: p. 1-31.
[15] Betz, R.C., et al., Genome-wide meta-analysis in alopecia areata resolves HLA associations and reveals two new susceptibility loci. Nat Commun, 2015. 6: p. 5966.
[16] Rendl, M., L. Lewis, and E. Fuchs, Molecular dissection of mesenchymal-epithelial interactions in the hair follicle. PLoS Biol, 2005. 3[11]: p. e331.
[17] Herman, A. and A.P. Herman, Mechanism of action of herbs and their active constituents used in hair loss treatment. Fitoterapia, 2016. 114: p. 18-25.
[18] Bergstrom, K.G., What’s new in androgenetic alopecia: approvals, long-term safety data, cancer risk and treatment options for women. J Drugs Dermatol, 2011. 10[1]: p. 98-101.
[19] Seale, L.R., A.N. Eglini, and A.J. McMichael, Side Effects Related to 5 alpha-Reductase Inhibitor Treatment of Hair Loss in Women: A Review. J Drugs Dermatol, 2016. 15[4]: p. 414-9.
[20] Khidhir, K.G., et al., The prostamide-related glaucoma therapy, bimatoprost, offers a novel approach for treating scalp alopecias. FASEB J, 2013. 27[2]: p. 557-67.
[21] Higgins, C.A., et al., Multifaceted role of hair follicle dermal cells in bioengineered skins. Br J Dermatol, 2017. 176[5]: p. 1259-1269. 78
[22] Moraveji, M., et al., Effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field on MAP2 and Nestin gene expression of hair follicle dermal papilla cells. Int J Artif Organs, 2016. 39[6]: p. 294-9.
[23] Colombe, L., J.F. Michelet, and B.A. Bernard, Prostanoid receptors in anagen human hair follicles. Exp Dermatol, 2008. 17[1]: p. 63-72.
[24] Leiros, G.J., et al., Androgens modify Wnt agonists/antagonists expression balance in dermal papilla cells preventing hair follicle stem cell differentiation in androgenetic alopecia. Mol Cell Endocrinol, 2017. 439: p. 26-34.
[25] Wang, X., et al., Macrophages induce AKT/beta-catenin-dependent Lgr5+ stem cell activation and hair follicle regeneration through TNF. Nat Commun, 2017. 8: p. 14091.
[26] Thornton, B. and C. Basu, Real-time PCR [qPCR] primer design using free online software. Biochem Mol Biol Educ, 2011. 39[2]: p. 145-54.
[27] Kang, J.I., et al., Undariopsis peterseniana Promotes Hair Growth by the Activation of Wnt/ beta-Catenin and ERK Pathways. Mar Drugs, 2017. 15[5].
[28] Kang, J.I., et al., Promotion Effect of Apo-9’-fucoxanthinone from Sargassum muticum on Hair Growth via the Activation of Wnt/beta-Catenin and VEGF-R2. Biol Pharm Bull, 2016. 39[8]: p. 1273-83.
[29] Kim, Y.E., et al., 3-Deoxysappanchalcone Promotes Proliferation of Human Hair Follicle Dermal Papilla Cells and Hair Growth in C57BL/6 Mice by Modulating WNT/beta-Catenin and STAT Signaling. Biomol Ther [Seoul], 2016. 24[6]: p. 572-580.
[30] Shen, Q., et al., Beta-catenin can induce hair follicle stem cell differentiation into transit- amplifying cells through c-myc activation. Tissue Cell, 2017. 49[1]: p. 28-34.
[31] Zhang, T., et al., Low-level laser treatment stimulates hair growth via upregulating Wnt10b and beta-catenin expression in C3H/HeJ mice. Lasers Med Sci, 2017.
[32] Zhou, L., et al., Activation of beta-Catenin Signaling in CD133-Positive Dermal Papilla Cells Drives Postnatal Hair Growth. PLoS One, 2016. 11[7]: p. e0160425.
[33] Coronel-Perez, I.M., E.M. Rodriguez-Rey, and F.M. Camacho-Martinez, Latanoprost in the treatment of eyelash alopecia in alopecia areata universalis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol, 2010. 24[4]: p. 481-5.
[34] Alm, A., J.W. Grunden, and K.K. Kwok, Five-year, multicenter safety study of fixed-combination latanoprost/timolol [Xalacom] for open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. J Glaucoma, 2011. 20[4]: p. 215-22.
[35] Bellandi, S., et al., Repigmentation of hair after latanoprost therapy. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol, 2011. 25[12]: p. 1485-7.
[36] Blume-Peytavi, U., et al., A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study to assess the efficacy of a 24-week topical treatment by latanoprost 0.1% on hair growth and pigmentation in healthy volunteers with androgenetic alopecia. J Am Acad Dermatol, 2012. 66[5]: p. 794-800.


 View All Artical



Vol2 Paper 6

posted Aug 13, 2018, 5:41 AM by Yaseen Raouf Mohammed   [ updated Aug 13, 2018, 5:42 AM ]

INHIBITION OF BIOFILM PRODUCTION IN MULTI-DRUG RESISTANT KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIA BY EXTRACT OF SOME PLANTS IN THE FLORA OF KOYA CITY.


 Srwa Ali Mohammed

 Faculty of Science and Health, Koya University, Danielle Mitterrand Boulevard, Koya KOY45, Kurdistan Region-Iraq

 Shwan Kamal Rachid
 
 College of Education and Natural Sciences Charmo University Chamchamal, 46023, Kurdistan-Iraq 

 Komar Research Center (KRC) Komar University of Science and Technology Qularaisi- Sarchinar, Sulaimani, 46001, Kurdistan-Iraq

ABSTRACT 
 This paper investigates the effects of sub-Inhibitory Concentrations (SICs) of some plants in the flora of Koya city/Kurdistan region of Iraq on biofilm production in Klebsiella pneumonia. 0.1-10 mg of the plant organic extracts used against growth and biofilm production in microtiter plates measured spectroscopically. While the SIC effect of each of Eugenia caryophyllata (Clove) and Quercus infectoria oliv has significantly reduced biofilm formation, no negative effect on the bacterial growth was investigated. Interestingly, while the synergistic effect of some plant extract mixes (like Poamgranet mixed with tetracyclin and Poamgranet with ampicillin. Salix candida mixed with refampicin and Salix candida with neomycin) at SICs level reduced biofilm production, mixtures from the other plants extract (like leafs of Salix candida and Punica granatum) have significantly increased biofilm expression in a multidrug resistant Klebsiella pneumonia. Similar synergistic effects were recorded when the bacteria grown in presence of the plants extract SICs mixed with sub-lethal concentration of some antibiotics in comparison to the effects of solely individual plant extracts.


 Keywords: 
Biofilm, Klebsiella pneumonia, plant extracts, antimicrobial agents.



 REFERENCES
[1] Hall-Stoodley L, Costerton JW, Stoodley P [February 2004]. “Bacterial biofilms: from the natural environment to infectious diseases”. Nature Reviews Microbiology 2 [2]: 95–108. doi:10.1038/nrmicro821 PMID 15040259
[2] Lear, G & G.D. Lewis, [2012]. Microbial Biofilms: Current Research and Applications. Caister Academic Press ISBN 978-1-904455-96-7
[3] Karatan E, Watnick P [June 2009]. “Signals, regulatory networks, and materials that build and break bacterial biofilms”. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 73 [2]:31047. doi:10.1128/MMBR.0004108. PMC 2698413. PMID 19487730.
[4] Hoffman LR, D’Argenio DA, MacCoss MJ, Zhang Z, Jones RA, Miller SI [August 2005]. “Aminoglycoside antibiotics induce bacterial biofilm formation”. Nature 436 [7054]:11715
doi: 10.1038/nature03912. PMID 16121184.
[5] An D and Parsek MR [June 2007]. “The promise and peril of transcriptional profiling in biofilm communities”. Current Opinion in Microbiology 10 [3]: 292 doi:10.1016/j. mib. PMID 17573234
[6] Surman S. and J. T. Walker [2003]. Medical Biofilms Detection, Prevention and Control. Chapter 1.
[7] Shan B.a Yi-ZhongCaia John D.Brooksb HaroldCorkea [2007]. The in vitro antibacterial activity of dietary spice and medicinal herb extracts. International Journal of Food Microbiology
Volume 117, Issue 1, 10 June 2007, Pages 112-119 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro. 2007.03.003
[8] Aiyelaagbe, O.O. and P.M. Osamudiamen, 2009. Phytochemical screening for active compounds in Mangifera indica leaves from Ibadan, Oyo State. Plant Sci. Res., 2: 11-13
[9] Rios J. L.*, Recio M. C., 2005. Medicinal plants and antimicrobial activity. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 100
[10] Edeoga, H.O., D.E. Okwu and B.O. Mbaebie, 2005. Phytochemical constituents of some Nigerian medicinal plants. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 4: 685-688
[11] Chitra Wendakoon 1 *, Peter Calderon2, and Daniel Gagnon2 [2011]. Evaluation of Selected Medicinal Plants Extracted in Different Ethanol Concentrations for Antibacterial Activity 67
against Human Pathogens, Journal of Medicinally Active Plants Volume 1 | Issue 2 June 2012
[12] Cheesbrough M [1984] Medical laboratory Manual for Tropical Countries. II. Butterworth- Heinemann Limited;. pp. 33–47. 16–391
[13] Danhorn, R.; Hentzer M.; Givskov M.; Parsek M.R., and C. Fuqua [2004]. Phosphorus limitation enhances biofilm formation of the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens through
the PhoR-PhoB regulatory system. J. Bacteriol186:4492.
[14] Berenbaum, M.C. 1978. A method for testing for synergy with any number of agents, Journal of Infectious Diseases, 137:122-130
[15] Lionel F.; H. Victoria and P. Klemm [2007]. Biofilm exclusion of uropathogenic bacteria by selected asymptomatic bacteriuria Escherichia coli strain.spkl@biocentrum.dtu.dk
[16] Maxleene Sandasi. [2008]. The effect of plant extracts on microbial biofilm formation and development. Magister technologiae: Tshwane University Of Technology Supervisor: Prof
A M Viljoen Co-Supervisor: Ms C M Leonard
[17] Chusri S.,1,2 K. Sompetch,1 S. Mukdee,1 S. Jansrisewangwong,1 T. Srichai,1 K. Maneenoon, 1 S. Limsuwan,1,2 and S. P. Voravuthikunchai2,3 2012 Inhibition of Staphylococcus epidermidis Biofilm Formation by Traditional Thai Herbal Recipes Used for Wound Treatment. Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Volume 2012 [2012],
Article ID 159797, 8 pageshttp://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/159797
[18] Lari AR; Alghhehbandan R, Nikui R [2000]. Epidemiological study of 3341 burns patients during three years in Tehran, Iran. Burns 26:49-53.
[19] Majed; H. Samei and J. M. Mhnad [1988]. Iraqi plants and herbs between Medical local and Scientist research. Center biological researches, Department of Medicine and Medicine
quality control, Dar althakafa, Bagdad. [In Arabic].
[20] Sharrif Moghaddasi Mohammad1 and Hamed Haddad Kashani 2 [2012]. Chemical composition of the plant Punica granatum L. [Pomegranate] and its effect on heart and cancer,
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 6[40], pp. 5306- 5310 http://www.academicjournals. org/JMPR DOI: 10.5897/JMPR11.577 ISSN 1996-0875 ©2012 Academic Journals Review


View All Artical
 

1-10 of 15