Vol2 Paper 4

posted Aug 13, 2018, 4:48 AM by Yaseen Raouf Mohammed   [ updated Sep 4, 2018, 1:01 AM ]
 SCREENING OF MYCOTA OF CERTAIN CUCURBIT SEEDS IN SOME REGIONS OF SULAIMANI AND GARMIAN AND THEIR IN VITRO TOXICITY EFFECT OF CULTURE FILTRATES ON  GERMINATION RATE

 
 Jalal H.S. Ismael

 College of Agricultural Sciences, University of Sulaimnai, Sulaimani, 46001, Kurdistan, Iraq

 ABSTRACT 
A number of fungal species were isolated from cucurbit seeds of local cultivars of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.), muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and watermelon (Citrullus lunatus (Thumb) Mansf) collected from Sulaimani and Garmian regions, Kurdistan, Iraq. The isolated fungal species from Sulaimani were identified as Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus nidulans, A.niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Monilia sp., Penicillium digitatum, Phytophthora sp., Rhizoctonia sp., Rhizopus stolonifer and Streptomyces sp. The frequencies of isolated fungi from squash, muskmelon and cucumber seeds were 0.28, 0.15 and 0.36%, respectively.The isolated fungi from Garmian region were: Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, Monilia sp., Penicillium digitatum, Rhizoctonia sp. and Ulocladium sp., and their frequencies were 0.20, 0.35 and 0.9% of muskmelon, squash and watermelon seeds, respectively. A.nidulans and Ulocladium sp. considered being the first record in Kurdistan. The results of this study revealed significant differences in the occurrence of fungi associated with seeds of various species collected from different regions. Culture filtrates of certain fungi reduced seed germination rate in some cultivars.


 Keywords: 
Seed-borne fungi, Cucurbit seeds, Germination rate, Sulaimani, Garmian.



 REFERENCES
[1] Abdel-Hafiz , S.I.I.; Moubasher,A.H. and Barakat,A. [1993]. Seasonal variations of Fungi of outdoor air and sediment dust at Assiut region, Upper Egypt, Grana, pp.32: 115-121.
[2] Agarwal,V.K.[1987]. Principles of seed pathology, Volumes 1 and 2.CRC press, Boca Raton,Florida, USA.
[3] Akkasha , M.A.; Al-Hasan , K.K. and Abd-Alhemid, M.T., [1986]. Isolation and Identification of some seed fungi of wheat and their effects on germination rate. Journal of Agricultural
Researches and Water Resources, 24 [2], pp. 89-102 [In Arabic].
[4] Antoniou P.P., Tjamos E.C. [2010]. Control of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum of cucumbers by soil solarization with impermeable plastics and/or reduced doses of methyl
bromide. EPPO Bulletin, 30[2]:165-167.
[5] Barnett,H.L. and Hunter, B.B. [1972]. Illustrated genera of imperfect fungi, 3rd edition, Burgess Publishing Co., 273 pp.
[6] Basak ,A.B.; Mridha M.A.U., and Shamima, S. [1989]. Mycoflora associated with different cultivars of brinjal seeds collected from Chittagong district. Seed research,17 [1], pp. 93-95.
[7] Blancard, D. [2012]. A color handbook of tomato diseases, identification, biology, and control, 2nd edition, Manson publishing Ltd., London, 668 pp.
[8] Booth, C. [1971].Genus Fusarium. Commonwealth Mycological Institute [CMI], Kew, Surry ,England, 273 pp.
[9] Boughalleb N, El Mahjoub, M. [2006]. In vitro detection of Fusarium spp. infection on watermelon seeds and their localization. Plant Pathol J., 5[2]: 178-182.
[10] Domsch, K.H.; Games, W. and Anderson, T.H. [1980].Compendium of soil fungi. Academic press, London.
[11] Dutta,P.S. [2007]. Seed borne fungi of mustard [Brassica juncea Coss], J. Mycopathol. Res., 45 [2], pp. 167-174.
[12] Ellis, M.B. [1971]. Dematiacous Hyphomycetes. CMI , Kew, Surry, England, 608 pp.
[13] Ellis, M.B. [1976]. More Dematiacious Hyphomycetes .Commonwealth Mycological Institute. Kew, Surrey , England, 507 pp.
[14] Essien, J.P.; Odoemena, C.S. and Essien, E.P. [1999]. Effect of traditional preservation on seed borne pathogens and seed viability of capsicum okra and tomato. Trop. Sci., 39, pp.238
49- 243
[15] Fiume, F. [1994]. Seed disinfection of pepper [Capsicum annum L.] from Alternaria Nees . Acta Horticulturae ,362,pp. 311-318. [Seed research in Horticulture V.].
[16] Garuba, T.; Abdulrahaman, A. A.; Olahan, G.C.; Abdulkareem, K. A. and Amadi, J. E. [2014]. Effects of Fungal Filtrates on Seed Germination and Leaf Anatomy of Maize Seedlings[
Zea mays L., Poaceae]. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage, 18 [4]: 662 – 667.
[17] lbraheem S.A, Okesha A.M and Mlhathem K.T. [1987]. Interrelationship between protein and oil content of soybean seed with some associated fungi. J. Agric. water Resources Res.
plant prod., 6,pp. 53-66.
[18] Islam, S.M.M. ; Masum, M.M.I. and Fakir, M.G.A. [2009]. Prevalence of seed-borne fungi in sorghum of different location of Bangladesh. Scientific Research and Essay,4[3], pp.175-
179.
[19] Ismael, J.H.S. [1997]. The effect of some isolated fungi from some wheat cultivars and their exudates on seed germination rate in Sulaimani Province, Zankoy Sulaimany Journal, 1[1]:
87-95. [In Arabic].
[20] Ismael, J.H.S. [2001]. Isolation and identification of some pathogenic fungi from rice seeds. Kurdistan Academician Journal [KAJ] , 1A [1], pp. 17-21.
[21] Ismael, J.H.S. [2010]. Isolation and identification of some fungi from certain solanaceous seedsin Sulaimania and Germian regions and their exudate effects on germination rate, Agric.
Biol. J. N. Am., 2010, 1[4]. pp. 615-619.
[22] Ismail, M.A. ; Abdel-Hafez, S.I.I. and Moharam, A.M. [2002]. Aeromycobiota of western desert of Egypt. African Journal of Science and Technology [AJST] Science and Engineering
Series, 3[1], pp.1-9.
[23] Karim, M [2005]. Prevalence of fungi associated with seeds of some minor cereals. MSc. Thesis. Depart of Plant Pathol, Bangladesh Agric Univ, Mymensingh, 97 pp.
[24] Kozakieweiz , Z. [1989]. Aspergillus species on stored products . Mycological papers No.161, Kew, Surry, England, 188 pp.
[25] Maudi , R.B. [2000]. Seed borne diseases and their control,1st edition , 2nd print CAMI publishing, Wallingford, U.K., 188 pp.
[26] Michael, S. [2000]. Seed pathology. 3rd edition, Al-Maarif Establishment, Alexandria , Egypt , 334 pp. [In Arabic]
[27] Nasreen, S., Azeem, T., Ghaffar, A. [2009]. Location of seeds-borne inoculum of Macrophomina phaseolina and its transmission in seedlings of cucumber. Pak. J. Bot., 41[5], pp.2563-2566.
[28] Neergaard, P. [1977]. Seed Pathology, Vol I and II, MacMillan Press, London, U.K, 1187 p.
[29] Neergaard, P. [1979]. Seed Pathology. Vol 1. The Macmillan Press Ltd., 839 p.
[30] Nishikawa , J. ; Kobayashi, T. ; Shirata, K. ; Chibana, T. and Natsuaki, T. [2006]. Seed borne fungi detected on stored solanaceous berry seeds and their biological activities . J. Gen.
Plant Pathol., 72, pp. 305-313.50
[31] Patel, K.K., Patel, A.J. [1990]. Control of charcoal-rot of sesame. Ind. J. of Mycol. Plant Pathol. 20, pp. 62-63.
[32] Patil , D. P., Muley, S.M. and Pawar, P. V. [2012]. Impact of fungal culture filtrate [mycotoxins] on seed germination of some pulses. World Journal of Science and Technology. 2[8], pp.01-02.
[33] Pitt, J.I. [1979]. The genus Penicillium and its telomorphic states Eupenicillium and Talaromyces. Academic press, London, 634 pp.
[34] Pitt, J.I. and Hocking, A.D. [2009], Fungi and food spoilage. 3rd edition, Springer Science+ Business Media, L.L.C, 524 pp.
[35] Prasad, R.D., Kulshreshta, D.D. [1999]. Acetone infusion of fungicides in sunflower seed for the control of Alternaria helianthi. Seed Res., 27:217-219.
[36] Quinn, G.P. and Keough, M.J. [2002]. Experimental design and data analysis for biologists. 1st edition, Cambridge university press, U.K., 557 pp.
[37] Raper, K. and Fennel, D.I. [1965]. The genus Aspergillus, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore ,USA , 686 pp.
[38] Summerbell, R. [2003]. Ascomycetes, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Sporothrix, Piedraia, and their relatives, chapter 7, pp. 314-315, In: “D. H. Howard, edt., Pathogenic fungi in humans and
animals, 2nd edition, Marcel Dekker, Inc., NewYork, 804 pp.
[39] Warham , E.J.; Bulter, L.D. and Sutton, B.C. [2003], Seed testing of maize and wheat [A laboratory guide]. 1st edition, CIMMYT, Mexico, 84 pp.
[40] Watanabe, T. [2010]. Pictorial atlas of soil and seed fungi, morphologies and cultured fungi and key to species, 3rd edition, CRC press, Taylor and Francies group, 405 pp.


 View All Artical



Comments